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작성일 : 09-08-26 15:01
펌프교실 (Pump School) - 액 ( Liquid ) 의 특성 (1 page / 2 )
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펌프의 선정에 있어 매우 중요한 요소가운데 하나는 그 이송액의 특성을 잘 파악하여 그에 맞는 재질의 펌프를 것입니다. 다음은 ABC.. 순서로 이송액의 특성을 나타내는 자료 이니 업무에 참고가 되었 으면 합니다.


ACETONE

Other Names: Dimethylketone
Formula: CH3COCH3.
Sp. Gr.: 0.8
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Acetone is an extremely flammable, colorless liquid, b.p. 56ºC / 133ºF; miscible with water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, and most oils. Used in making acetic anhydride; solvent for cellulose acetate; solvent in paints, lacquers, and adhesives; also used as a solvent in epoxy resins and pharmaceuticals; used in purest form to clean and dry precision parts.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction, PTFE, Kalrez? or EPR elastomers are recommended. Shaft sealing is critical due to the hazardous nature of the liquid; use either a mechanical seal or a sealless pump design.



ADHESIVE

A name for a group of substances capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

Other Names: Cement, glue, mucilage, paste

Remarks: Adhesives are made from many different basic materials, among them dextrin, latex, liquid rubber, resin, sodium silicate, and starch. Adhesives are used in the manufacture of cardboard boxes, plywood, furniture, paper bags, pressure sensitive tapes and many industries including automotive, printing, manufacturing, etc.

Pump Notes: Pump construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on the corrosive nature of individual adhesives. Elastomers also vary depending on individual solvents used in the adhesive. Shaft sealing may be packing or mechanical seals. Generally, adhesives are very viscous and the pump design must be capable of handling those viscosities. Adhesives may also contain abrasives and the pump design must be capable of handling particulate.



ALCOHOL

Normally considered to mean Ethyl Alcohol, q.v. For other alcohols, see specific names, such as methyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, etc.



ALKYD RESINS

Resins made by the union of dibasic acids, or anhydrides such as phthalic anhydride with a polyhydric alcohol such as glycerol.

Viscosity: May range from 100 cPs. to over 1000 cPs. depending on temperature and make-up of particular alkyd resin.

Remarks: Alkyd resins may be varied or modified by the use of other anhydrides, glycols, polyols, or other liquids, the most common of which are natural oils. Alkyd resins are easy to apply, retain their initial appearance after long exposure to weather and have good heat resistance, color retention, toughness, adhesion and flexibility. They are used as protective and decorative coatings for metals, wood, paper, textiles; are used in adhesives, printing inks, floor coverings; as vehicles in automotive and industrial finishes; and in oil and water paints, lacquers, and enamels.

Pump Notes: Construction recommendations depend on individual formulations. Mechanical shaft seals may be used depending on viscosity and temperature.



AMMONIA

Other Names: Anhydrous Ammonia; see also Ammonium Hydroxide
Formula: NH3
Sp. Gr.: 0.64 @ 0ºC / 32ºF
Viscosity: 0.3 cPs. / 2.13 SSU

Remarks: Ammonia is a colorless gas or liquid, has a pungent odor, is lighter than air as a gas, is easily liquefied by pressure, is very soluble in water or alcohol and has a b.p. -29ºC / -20ºF, freezing point -78ºC / -108ºF. The largest volume of ammonia is used for fertilizers. Other uses include production of nitric acid, urea, acrylonitrile; refrigeration; solvent. Ammonia liquid causes burns; the gas is extremely irritating, causing nausea and difficulty in breathing.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction, neoprene or buna n elastomers are recommended. Double mechanical seals with oil reservoir are normally used for shaft sealing. Pump design should be suitable for a thin, non-lubricating liquid.



AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE

Other Names: Aqua ammonia; aqueous ammonia, ammonia solution, ammonium hydrate
Formula: NH4OH
Sp. Gr.: Slightly less than 1.0
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid, strong characteristic odor. Ammonium hydroxide is made by dissolving ammonia gas in water. Concentrations of solution range up to about 30%. Used in making textiles, rayon, rubber, fertilizer, plastics, ammonia soaps, lubricants, ink, explosives and in the saponifying of fats and oils, as a detergent and household cleanser. Ammonia window cleaners are weak solutions of ammonium hydroxide.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction, neoprene or buna n elastomers are recommended. Pumps that have been used for handling ammonium hydroxide will rust badly when they are drained; fill with liquid or drained and fill with oil to prevent rusting. Standard seals have a tendency to dry out and harden if left exposed to air for any length of time.



AMYL ACETATE

Other Names: Amylacetic ester, banana oil
Formula: CH3COOC5H11
Sp. Gr.: 0.88
Viscosity: Slightly greater than water

Remarks: Colorless liquid. Very slightly soluble in water; miscible with alcohol and ether; vapor is heavier that air. Flammable as a liquid. Solvent for lacquers and paints, used in dry cleaning preparations, as a flavoring agent and in printing and finishing textile fabrics.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction, PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended. Pump design must be suitable for handling a thin liquid.



AMYL ALCOHOL

Other names: n-amyl alcohol, primary; n-butyl carbinol
Formula: CH3(CH2)4OH
Sp. Gr.: 0.81
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Amyl alcohol may exist with the same formula in several different molecular structures. Information given here pertains particularly to the alcohol identified as n-amyl alcohol, primary. A colorless liquid with a mild odor, slightly soluble in water, has a b.p. 138ºC / 280ºF, freezing point -79ºC / -110ºF, flash point (open cup) 48ºC / 118ºF. Used as a raw material for pharmaceutical preparations.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction, EPR elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended. Pump design should be capable of handling a thin liquid.



ANIMAL FATS - See Fats



AQUIEOUS AMMONIA - See Ammonium Hydroxide



AROCLOR - See Heat Transfer Liquids



AROMATIC SOLVENT - See Solvents



ASPHALT

Other Names: Asphaltum, bitumen, pitch, Trinidad pitch, mineral pitch, petroleum asphalt
Viscosity: Varies widely with type and temperature, normally handled in the 150 to 205ºC / 300 to 400ºF range at which temperature viscosity is usually in the 100 cPs. to 5000 cPs. range.

Remarks: A dark brown or black solid or semi-solid material made up primarily of bitumens, which occur in nature or are obtained as residuals in refining petroleum. Asphalt is used for paving roads, roofing, waterproofing, paints, softener in rubber blends, and fungicides.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is recommended. Normally, packing is used for a shaft seal but mechanical seals have also been used with success. Pump jacketing is normally required to keep the product at temperature. Asphalt is a solid a room temperature which necessitates bringing the pump to temperature before operating.



ASPHALT, CUT-BACK

Asphalt which has been diluted to a liquid or semi-solid with a petroleum thinner.

Viscosity: Variable, depending on dilution and temperature, normally 22 to 220 cPs. / 100 to 1,000 SSU in the 21 to 93ºC / 70 to 200ºF range.

Remarks: Cut-back asphalt is used for coating road surfaces.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Packing is the normal shaft seal.



ASPHALT, EMULSIFIED

A suspension or emulsion of asphalt in water.

Viscosity: Usually relatively thin; almost water-like

Remarks: Can often be used without being heated. Asphalt emulsions can be applied in the same manner as asphalts; after the water has evaporated, the asphalt hardens into a continuous film. Used for coating roadways, cement waterproofing and roofing compounds.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Packing is the normal shaft seal. Special construction features are required depending on the particular pump design.



BARIUM SULFATE SLURRY

Other Names: Barite
Formula: BaSO4
Sp. Gr.: 4.4 (Powder)
Viscosity: Varies with concentration and liquid used to make slurry

Remarks: A fine, white, odorless powder. Practically insoluble in water and solvents; soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid. It is used as a pigment for paints, filler for plastics and inks and in the medical industry. Barium sulfate is abrasive.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. An abrasion resistant mechanical seal should be used for shaft sealing. Due to the abrasive characteristics of the liquid, design features to combat abrasion must be used.



BEER

Remarks: Beer, beer wort, spent beer and yeast q.v. can have a wide variety of properties depending on particular brewery or stage of process.

Pump Notes: Positive displacement pumps usually do not handle beer in its drinkable form. Related products such as beer wort and spent yeast may be handled. Contact individual pump manufacturer for specific recommendations.



BEESWAX - See Wax



BENZENE

Other Names: Benzol
Formula: C6H6
Sp. Gr.: 0.88
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Clear, colorless, flammable liquid; boiling point 80ºC / 176ºF; melting point 5ºC / 41ºF; flash point (closed cup) -11ºC / 12ºF. Miscible with alcohol, acetone, carbon tetrachloride; slightly soluble in water. Benzene is used in making styrene, synthetic detergents, insecticides, fumigants and solvents. Benzene is extremely flammable; the vapor is harmful; the liquid is poisonous.

Pump Notes: Benzene is a hazardous liquid to handle. Consult individual pump manufacturer for recommendations.



BENZOL - See Benzene



BIPHENYL - See Heat Transfer Liquids



BITUMEN - See Asphalt



BLACK LIQUOR SOAP

Other Names: Black liquor skimmings
Viscosity: Ranges from 22 cPs. to 25,000 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: Ranges around 0.95

Remarks: Black liquor soap (skimmings) is the fatty and rosin acid content of black liquor that floats to the surface after partial evaporation of the water content. Viscosity varies widely and the product is shear thinning. Black liquor soap is a raw material for tall oil.

Pump Notes: Cast iron or stainless steel construction may be appropriate depending on individual requirements. Pump jacketing may be required if the product is handled at elevated temperature.



BLACK STRAP MOLASSES - See Molasses



BLOOD

Other Names: Animal Blood
Sp. Gr.: 1.0
Viscosity: Slightly more than water

Remarks: Blood is somewhat corrosive. Blood from packing houses is used for fertilizer, adhesives, and feed for hogs and chickens.

Pump Notes: The pump recommendation above is not intended for handling human blood. For packing house service, the construction described should be considered expendable. Consider steel fitted pumps if dirt or sand can get mixed in with the blood. Pumps operate best if slowed down to better handle the foreign materials.



BRIGHT STOCK

Viscosity: Highly viscous; check with individual manufacturers for specific viscosity

Remarks: Bright stock is a lubricating oil of high viscosity, obtained from residues of petroleum distillation. Used for blending with neutral oils in preparing automotive engine lubricating oils.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n is usually suitable for elastomers. Packing must be used due to viscosity.



BRINE

Other Names: There are many types of brine, such as calcium chloride and sodium chloride. Look for the specific type if known.

Remarks: Normally brines are water-thin and may be either acid or alkaline in nature. Brine is used in some cooling systems, for food preservation, and for cleaning some products or systems.

Pump Notes: Iron pumps handling brine will corrode rapidly when exposed to air. Check equipment construction in the rest of the system for guidance on selecting pump construction. To reduce possibility of electrolytic corrosion, do not use dissimilar metals.



BUNKER "C" FUEL OIL - See Fuel Oil #6



BUTADIENE

Other Names: Vinylethylene
Formula: H2C: CHHC: CH2
Sp. Gr.: 0.62
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Colorless gas with mild aromatic odor, easily liquefied, 1.21 BAR / 17.6 PSI, extremely flammable, soluble in alcohol, polymerizes easily, b. p. -5ºC / -23ºF, vapor pressure 17.6 PSI @ 0ºC / 32ºF. Used in the formulation of styrene-butadiene and nitrile-butadiene rubbers; latex paints; rocket fuels.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended. Use a mechanical seal or sealless design because of the hazardous nature of this product.



BUTANE

Formula: C4H10
Sp. Gr.: 0.58
Viscosity: 0.1 cPs. / 0.78 SSU

Remarks: Colorless gas; has no corrosive action on metals; boils under atmospheric pressure at about -1ºC / 31ºF. Used for making synthetic rubber, high-octane fuels, mixed with propane for household and industrial fuels. Is one of the liquids referred to as LP-Gas, although propane is more frequently referred to as LP-Gas. Butane will form explosive mixtures with air.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton? elastomers are recommended. A mechanical seal pump must be used due to the hazardous nature of this liquid. Investigate pump manufacturers offering UL listed pumps for this service.



BUTANOL - See Butyl Alcohol



BUTYL ALCOHOL

Other Names: 1-butanol
Formula: CH3(CH2)2CH2OH
Sp. Gr.: 0.81
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid, b.p. 118ºC / 244ºF, used in preparation of esters and butyl acetates; solvent for resins and coatings; plasticizer; detergent formulations; some urea and melamine resins. Avoid prolonged breathing of vapor and contact with skin.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton? elastomers are recommended. Use of a mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



CALCIUM CHLORIDE BRINE

Formula: CaCl2
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 to 1.3
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Calcium chloride is a white, deliquescent crystal that can combine with different amounts of water. In all forms, it is soluble in water and alcohol. The water solution is normally neutral or slightly on the alkaline or basic side. Used for dust-proofing roads, thawing snow and ice, freeze-proofing coal or sand, concrete conditioning; paper and pulp industry; as refrigeration brine; as a ballast for weighting implement tires and in pharmaceuticals.

Pump Notes: Rapid corrosion will take place when an iron pump that has handled brine is exposed to air. Avoid the use of dissimilar metals to reduce tendency for electrolytic corrosion.



CALCIUM STEARATE

Formula: Ca(C18H35O2)2
Viscosity: Depends on concentration, but normally varies from 44 cPs. 200 to 200 cPs.

Remarks: A white powder, insoluble in water and slightly soluble in hot alcohol, m.p. 150ºC / 300ºF. Decomposed by many acids and alkalies. Used as a water repellent, flatting agent in lacquers, in varnishes, paints, enamels, plastics; as a lubricant; in emulsions, cements, wax crayons; as a stabilizer for vinyl resins and as an anti-caking agent in foods. May be abrasive if handled as a slurry

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. User may request other metallurgies, depending on end use of the liquid or the solvent if used in a solution Jacketed features may be helpful when handling molten calcium stearate.. Slurry form may require abrasion-resistant features. Check on the abrasive nature of liquid or possible corrosive attack on seal materials.



CANE SYRUP - See Sugar Syrup



CARBOLIC ACID - See Phenol



CARBON DISULFIDE

Other names: Carbon Bisulfide
Formula: CS2
Sp. Gr.: 1.3
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Clear, colorless, flammable liquid; strong disagreeable odor; b.p. 46ºC / 115ºF; soluble in alcohol, benzene and ether, slightly soluble in water. Used in making viscose rayon, cellophane, carbon tetrachloride and flotation agents; as a veterinary medicine; as a solvent for fats, resins, rubber, waxes and other chemical products; in varnishes, lacquers, paint and varnish removers; and in making rubber textiles, fumigants, matches, preservatives, and pesticides. Liquid is poisonous, extremely flammable, highly volatile, and has a harmful vapor.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. Other construction may be specified due to end use of the product. Viton? elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



CARBON TETRACHLORIDE

Other Names: Tetrachloromethane, perchloromethane
Formula: CCl4
Sp. Gr.: 1.6
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid; vapor is heavier than air. Non-flammable, poisonous. b.p. 77ºC / 170ºF, f. p. -23ºC / -9ºF, vapor pressure 91 mm at 20ºC / 68ºF; no flash point. Miscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, naphtha; slightly soluble in water. Used for refrigerants and propellants, metal degreasing, grain fumigants and insecticides, fire extinguishers, dry cleaning solvents, and general solvents. Vapor and liquid are hazardous. May be fatal if inhaled or swallowed.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. If contaminated with moisture, carbon tetrachloride can form hydrochloric acid which is corrosive to cast iron pumps. Be sure that system is clean and free of water to avoid corrosion problems indicated above. Liquid needs to be Adry- or anhydrous. Viton elastomers and a mechanical shaft seal are recommended.



CASTOR OIL

Other Names: Ricinus oil
Viscosity: 44 cPs. to 660 cPs. / 200 to 3,000 SSU
Sp. Gr.: 0.96

Remarks: Pale, yellowish color, transparent, mild odor, nauseating taste; solidifies at -10ºC / 14ºF; soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform and carbon disulfide. Used in protective coatings, plastics, lubricants, fatty acids, textiles, rubber, hydraulic fluids, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, flavoring, and insulating compounds.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but may vary depending on end use of product. Buna n elastomers are satisfactory. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



CAUSTIC - See Sodium Hydroxide



CAUSTIC POTASH - See Sodium Hydroxide



CAUSTIC SODA - See Sodium Hydroxide



CHLORDAN

Other Names: Chlordane
Formula: C10H6Cl8
Sp. Gr.: 1.6
Viscosity: 22 cPs. @ 38ºC / 100 SSU @ 100ºF

Remarks: Colorless, odorless, slightly viscous liquid, b.p. 175ºC / 347ºF; soluble in many organic solvents, insoluble in water; miscible in kerosene. Used as an insecticide in oil emulsions and dispersible liquids. Liquid is harmful if swallowed; can be absorbed through the skin. When used as an insecticide, Chlordan is reduced with water and becomes water-thin.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Will cause rapid rusting of iron parts when pump is left exposed to air. Keep full of liquid or flush and fill with oil. Viton?, PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



CHLOROFORM

Other Names: Trichloromethane
Formula: CHCl3
Sp. Gr: 1.5
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Clear, colorless, heavy, volatile liquid; nonflammable; miscible with alcohol, ether, benzene, naphtha; slightly soluble in water, b.p. 61ºC / 142ºF, freezing point -63ºC / -81ºF; no flash point. Used in making fluorocarbon refrigerants and propellants, fluorocarbon plastics, dyes and drugs, anesthetics; also used as a general solvent, fumigant, and insecticide. Vapor is harmful. Liquid may be fatal if swallowed.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Keep pump full of liquid at all times to prevent rapid oxidation or rusting. If pump is drained, fill with oil; any dilution or impurity can make this liquid corrosive. Viton? elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



CHLOROTHENE - See Trichloroethane



CHOCOLATE

Other Names: Bitter chocolate, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate, chocolate liquor, chocolate coating.

Viscosity: Varies widely from 2,000 cPs. to several thousand cPs. depending on type and process; also varies over normal temperature range of 38ºC to 93ºC / 100°F to 200°F. Chocolate viscosity is often expressed in degrees MacMichael. This is a standard viscosity unit of measure in the chocolate industry.

Remarks: Chocolate is made from cacao beans. The beans are roasted, ground up, and mixed with oils to get a semi-liquid which is the beginning point in the making of chocolate. Chocolate in the early stages of processing is known as bitter chocolate. Bitter chocolate to which sugar has been added is known as sweet chocolate (the sugar in sweet chocolate can carbonize to form abrasives in close running pump parts). Sweet chocolate to which milk has been added is known as milk chocolate. Chocolate that has been thinned down for spraying foods is known as chocolate liquor. Chocolate can be diluted with vegetable fats such as palm nut or coconut oils.

Pump Notes: Cast iron pumps are normally satisfactory but stainless steel may also be used. The handling of chocolate with positive displacement pumps can involve a number of challenges. Provide complete application details to individual manufacturers for recommendations.



CHOLINE CHLORIDE

Formula: (CH3)3N(C1)CH2OH
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: White crystals with a salty, bitter taste and fishy odor. Soluble in water and alcohol; insoluble in ether, benzene and carbon disulfide; extremely hygroscopic. Used in medicine, nutrition, and as an animal feed supplement.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory for concentrations up to 75%. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



CLAY COATINGS - See Paper Coatings



COAL TAR

Viscosity: Highly viscous or semi-solid at ambient temperatures. Normal pumping temperature ranges from 66ºC to 260ºC / 150°F to 500°F with viscosities ranging from 40 cPs. to several thousand cPs.

Remarks: A black, semi-solid material, heavier than water, obtained in the destructive distillation of coal. Sp. Gr. 1.2. Soluble in ether, benzene, carbon disulfide; slightly soluble in water. A major raw material for a variety of dyes, drugs and other organic chemicals. Coal tar or its fractions can also be used for waterproofing, paints, pipe coating, roofing, insulation, pesticides and in medicine.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Pump jacketing features are recommended to keep the product liquid especially at start up.



COAL-TAR PITCH

Viscosity: Solid at ambient temperatures; viscosity depends on the grade and handling temperature.

Remarks: A dark brown residue left after coal tar is redistilled. Coal tar pitch normally constitutes 50-65% of the usual grades of coal tar. Used as a binder for carbon electrodes, as a base for paints and as a plasticizer for elastomers and polymers, extenders, saturants and impregnants. Also used in impregnation of fiber pipe for electrical conduits and drainage, foundry core compounds, briquetting coal, paving and roofing.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Pump jacketing features are recommended to keep the product liquid especially at start up. The product may contain abrasives that would require use of abrasion resistant parts in the pump.



COCOA BUTTER

Other Names: Cacao butter, theobroma oil
Sp. Gr.: 0.86
Viscosity: Variable, depending on how it was put in solution and at what temperature it is being handled. Can range from a few hundred cPs. to several thousand cPs.

Remarks: Yellowish-white, brittle solid with chocolate-like taste and odor m.p. 35ºC / 95°F.; insoluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble in boiling alcohol. Used in making candies, pharmaceuticals, and soaps.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be required. Pump jacketing may be required to keep the product liquid.



COCONUT OIL

Other Names: Coconut palm oil, cocoanut oil; coconut butter
Sp. Gr.: 0.92
Viscosity: In the range of 22-110 cPs., depending on temperature.

Remarks: White, semi-solid lard-like fat; characteristic odor. Soluble in alcohol, ether and carbon disulfide, m.p. from 20-28ºC / 68°F-82°F. Used in soaps; in foodstuffs; cosmetics; candles; emulsions; alkyd resins; lubricating greases; synthetic detergents; as a butter substitute and as a source of glycerin and fatty acids.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be specified as well. Buna n elastomers are recommended.



COD-LIVER OIL

Other Names: Morrhua oil
Sp. Gr.: 0.92
Viscosity: Approximately 110 cPs.

Remarks: Pale yellow, liquid, non-drying oil; slightly fishy odor and taste. Soluble in ether, ethyl acetate and carbon disulfide. Used in medicine for its vitamin A and D content and in leather dressing.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory but user needs may dictate stainless steel. Buna n elastomers are recommended.



COLD FAT - See Fats



CONTACT CEMENT

Other Names: Rubber cement
Viscosity: Varies depending on the particular type of contact cement but is normally considered to be quite viscous

Remarks: Contact cement covers a wide range of materials; some may be emulsions sensitive to shearing; others may be flammable because of their vehicles; still others may be water solutions. Used for wide variety of adhesive-type applications.

Pump Notes: Cast iron or steel construction is satisfactory. Choice of elastomer depends on the particular grade of solvent used.



COOKING OILS, HOT

Oils used for deep fat frying of foods.

Viscosity: Water-thin at normal operating temperatures of 150ºC-204ºC / 300°F-400°F

Remarks: Hot cooking oils are used primarily for deep fat frying of vegetables and meats. Some cooking oils or fats will become solid at room temperatures; some provision may be necessary to assure melted fat or oil in the pump.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended due to temperature. . Some buildup on pump parts from residues in the oil may occur when continuously recirculating oils being used to fry certain kinds of meat.



CORN OIL - See Vegetable Oil



CORN STARCH - See Starch



CORN SYRUP

Other Names: Glucose, starch syrup
Sp. Gr.: Varies, depending on amount of vapor removed, but normally 1.3 to 1.4
Viscosity: Varies, depending on amount of water vapor removed and temperature, but normally from 5,000 cPs. to 22,000 cPs.

Remarks: A thick, syrupy mixture of dextrose, maltose and dextrins with some water. Normally colorless; soluble in water and glycerin. Used in making candy, jelly, and other food products, alcoholic fermentations, pharmaceuticals, and in treating tobacco.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although stainless steel may also be specified. Buna n elastomers are satisfactory. Corn syrup may be handled at elevated temperature to reduce viscosity; pump jacketing features should be considered if this is the case. Mechanical seals may be used depending on liquid viscosity.



COTTONSEED OIL

Viscosity: 44 to 110 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: 0.92

Remarks: Pale yellowish-brown to black-red, semi-drying oil. Odorless with a bland taste. Soluble in ether, benzene and carbon disulfide; solidifies around 32ºC / 90°F. Used in medicine, soap stock, lubricants, glycerol, cosmetic creams; in food as an oleo or butter substitute, and in salad and cooking oils.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are satisfactory.



CREOSOTE

Other Names: Creosote wood-tar; creosote coal-tar, often referred to as creosote. Creosote wood-tar and creosote coal-tar have similar pump application properties and will be combined herein.
Viscosity: Varies, depending on the source, but normally 22 cPs.-66 cPs.

Remarks: Oily liquid with distinctive odor; coal-tar creosote is poisonous. Sp. Gr. of the wood-tar creosote is 1.1. Creosote is used for wood preservatives and as a disinfectant.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are satisfactory. Mechanical seals may be used depending on the grade of creosote.



CRESOL

Other Names: Methyl phenol, hydroxymethylbenzene, also similar to cresylic acid. Commercial cresol is normally a mixture of the ortho, meta and /or para cresols.
Formula: CH3C6H4OH
Sp. Gr.: 1.04
Viscosity: 8 cPs. - 22 cPs.

Remarks: Meta is a yellowish liquid; others are crystals; all are soluble in alcohol and ether; all are hazardous, rapidly absorbed through the skin, and cause severe burns.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are satisfactory; use PTFE for meta.



CRESYLIC ACID - See Cresol



CRUDE OIL

Viscosity: Varies, depending on oil field source. Can range from 8 cPs. to several thousand cPs.; some crudes have to be heated before they can be easily handled.

Remarks: All crude oils are complex mixtures of paraffin, naphthene and aromatic hydrocarbons with small amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons with small amounts of sulfur. The terms paraffin base crude, asphalt base crude and aromatic base crudes are used to indicate the most prevalent constituents of crudes from various fields. Crude oil is a flammable liquid varying in color from yellow to dark reddish-brown, has a peculiar heavy odor; specific gravity ranges from 0.78 to 0.97; crude is refined to give natural gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, fuel oil, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, road oil, asphalt and coke. Crude oil and some of its fractions are major raw materials for many chemicals.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory although some crude oils may require use of some stainless steel parts. Elastomer recommendation depends on the particular grade of crude and may range from buna n to PTFE.



DENATURED ALCOHOL

Ethyl alcohol to which another substance has been added to make it unfit for human consumption, and also to prevent recovery of the alcohol from the mixture. The denaturants do not prevent use of the alcohol in the industry and the arts. Many chemicals have been used as denaturants including acetone, camphor, chloroform, ethyl acetate, gasoline, iodine, kerosene, phenol, pine oil, soaps, and wood alcohol.

Viscosity: Thin

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. Elastomers used must be compatible with the denaturant.



DETERGENTS

Other Names: Synthetic detergents, syndets
Sp. Gr.: 1.0 to 1.3
Viscosity: Varies widely over the range from 22 cPs. to 16,500 cPs., depending on make-up and temperature.

Detergents, as they are commonly thought of are materials which have a cleansing action like soap but are not derived directly from fats and oils. Synthetic detergents are surface active agents. There are three basic types, determined by how the ions are charged. Detergents may contain varying percentages of alkylaryl sulfonates, sulfates, fatty alcohols, fatty acids or amines.

Remarks: Detergents are used primarily as household cleaners. Also used in industry for textile scouring, bleaching, de-sizing, dyeing, printing and finishing, for metal cleaning and pickling, for cleaning and sterilizing food processing equipment, in cosmetics, processing leather, fire fighting making synthetic rubber.

Pump Notes: Pump construction varies with individual applications. Close work with user and supplier of product is necessary to arrive at good pump recommendation.



DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

Other Names: Diatomite, kiseselguhr, filter acid

Soft earthy rock composed of the siliceous skeletons of small aquatic plants called diatoms. Sold as a powder which is able to absorb 1.5 to 4.0 times its weight of water.

Remarks: Diatomaceous earth is used for filtration, clarifying an decolorizing, as a mineral filler, thermal insulation, as an absorbent, an abrasive and as a source of silica in chemical production.

Pump Notes: Diatomaceous Earth is always handled as a mixture with another liquid. Pump construction varies based on the liquid. Diatomaceous earth is mildly abrasive and a pump must be able to handle this.



DICHLOROMETHANE - See Methylene Chloride



DIESEL FUEL - See Fuel Oil #1 & #2



DIETHANOLAMINE

Other Names: DEA
Formula: (HOCH2CH2) 2NH
Sp. Gr.: 1.1
Viscosity: Normally in the 110 cPs. to 220 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless crystals or liquid, active base. m.p. 28ºC / 82°F, b.p. 217ºC / 423°F, flash point (open cup) 138ºC / 280°F; soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in ether. Used as a liquid detergent for emulsion paints, used in cutting oils, shampoos, cleaners and polishes, chemical intermediate for resins, plasticizers.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although other construction may be requested by the end user. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended.



DIETHLENE GLYCOL

Other Names: DEG, dihydroxydiethyl ether
Formula: CH2OHCH2OCH2CH2OH
Sp. Gr.: 1.1
Viscosity: Several hundred cPs.

Remarks: Clear, colorless, practically odorless, syrupy liquid; non-corrosive; hygroscopic. Miscible with water, ethyl alcohol, acetone, ethylene glycol, with a b.p. of 245ºC / 443°F and a f.p. of -8ºC / 18°F. It is used as a textile lubricant, a conditioner and softener for casin, gelatin, vulcanizing fibers, book-binding pastes, synthetic resins as a solvent for nitrocellulose, gums, resins, oils, organic compounds, for moistening and softening agent for cork compositions, glues, parchments, paper, tobacco, etc. It also can be used in cosmetics and as an anti-freeze to lower the freezing point of water.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended.



DIISOCYANATE - See Toluene Diisocyanate



DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE

Other Names: DMF
Formula: HCON(CH3)2
Sp. Gr.: 0.95
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: A water-white liquid, non-corrosive with a b.p. of 153ºC / 307°F and a m.p. of -61ºC / -78°F; flash point (open cup) 67ºC / 153°F. Miscible with water and most organic solvents. Used as a solvent for vinyl resins an dacetylene, solvent for butadiene and some petroleum components, used in dyestuffs and pharmaceuticals.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers and standard mechanical shaft seals are recommended.



DIMETHYLKETONE - See Acetone



DIOCTYL PHTHALATE

Other Names: Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate, DOP
Formula: C6H4 [COOCH2CH(C2H5)C4H9]2
Sp. Gr.: 0.99
Viscosity: 66-88 cPs.

Remarks: Light colored, odorless liquid; pour point -46°C / -50°F; flash point 220°C / 425°F; vapor pressure nil; insoluble in water; miscible with mineral oil. Used as a plasticizer for many resins and synthetic rubbers, used as a barrier fluid in handling TDI an other foam liquids.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE and Kalrez? are the best elastomers to use although Viton? is fair. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



DIVINYLBENZENE

Other Names: Alkane, detergent alkylate
Formula: C6H4(CH: CH2)2
Sp. Gr.: 0.93
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Water-white liquid easily polymerized; b.p. 200°C / 390°F; used in drying oils, casting resins and polyesters. Liquids is highly reactive; once reaction started, may proceed with violence.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers and mechanical shaft seals are recommended.



DODECYLBENZENE

Other Names: Alkane, detergent alkylate
Formula: C12H25C6H5
Sp. Gr.: 0.86
Viscosity: 11 cPs. / 50 SSU

Remarks: Used in making synthetic detergents.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers and mechanical shaft seals are recommended.



DOP - See Dioctyl Phthalate



DOWTHERM - See Heat Transfer Liquids



EDIBLE OILS

This group of oils may consist of vegetable, peanut, cannola, corn, safflower, etc.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers and mechanical shaft seals are usually used.



EMULSIFIER - See Emulsion



EMULSION

A substantially permanent mixture of two or more liquids which do not normally dissolve in each other, but which are held in suspension, one in the other. The suspension is usually stabilized by small amounts of additional substances known as emulsifiers. Typical emulsions are milk, Mayonnaise, liquid petroleum emulsions, asphalt emulsions, etc. Typical emulsifiers are egg yolk, casin, certain proteins, soap, bentonite.

Pump Notes: Construction varies based on the particular emulsion.



ENAMEL

A type of oil-base paint containing binders that form a film on exposure to air. Enamel has an outstanding ability to level off brush marks and to form an especially smooth film. It is usually intended for use as top coats and contains relatively less pigment than paint formulations for priming or surfacing.

Viscosity: Ranges from 22 cPs. to 5,500 cPs., depending on make-up of the enamel.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers may be Viton? or PTFE depending on solvents used. Pump construction capable of handling mild abrasives should be considered.



EPOXY RESINS

Epoxy resins are those materials resulting from the reaction of bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin. They may be either viscous liquids or a clear, brittle solid. To the basic resin many different curing agents, diluents and modifiers can be added, as a result there is a wide range of properties.

Viscosity: Ranges from 1,200 to 22,000 cPs., depending on make-up of the resin and the temperature it is being handled. Normal temperature range for handling epoxies is ambient to 90°C / 200°F.

Remarks: Epoxy resins are used for surface coatings, as adhesives and for laminating to make tanks, pipe and some structural parts, some are cast to make plastic metal-forming tools and dyes; other grades are used for potting and encapsulation of electrical parts. Pumps should be slowed down in keeping with viscosity being handled.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. EPR or Neoprene elastomers are recommended. A sealless pump design may be used. Mechanical shaft seals and packing have also been used with success.



ETHANOL - See Ethyl Alcohol



ETHANOLAMINE

Other Names: MEA, monoethanolamine, colamine
Formula: HOCH2CH2NH2
Viscosity: 100-200 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: 1.02

Remarks: Colorless, moderately viscous liquid. Ammonia-like odor. Strong base. Chemically active. Miscible with water; soluble in carbon tetrachloride and alcohol. b.p. 170°C / 340°F, freezing point 10ºC / 50°F, vapor pressure 0.48 mm @ 20°C / 68°F, flash point (open cup) 93°C / 200°F. Used as a non-ionic detergent in dry cleaning, emulsion paints, polishes and agricultural sprays, used as a chemical intermediate, in pharmaceuticals and as a corrosion inhibitor.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as are mechanical shaft seals.



ETHYL ACETATE

Other Names: Acetic ether, acetic ester
Formula: CH3COOC2H5
Sp. Gr.: 0.89
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Colorless, fragrant, flammable liquid. Soluble in chloroform and alcohol, slightly soluble in water. b.p. 77°C / 170°F, vapor pressure 73 mm @ 20°C / 68°F, freezing point -84°C / -120°F, flash point 4°C / 40°F. Used as a lacquer and plastic solvent, as a general solvent, in flavoring and making perfumes, in pharmaceuticals. Ethyl acetate is flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as an mechanical shaft seals.



ETHYL ACRYLATE

Formula: CH2: CHCOOC2H5
Sp. Gr.: 0.92
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid. b.p. 99°C / 210°F, m.p. -72°C / -97°F, flash point 10°C / 50°F. Readily polymerized. Used in making polymers, acrylic paints, as a chemical intermediate. Liquid is flammable and the vapor is harmful; may irritate skin and eyes.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



ETHYL ALCOHOL

Other Names: Alcohol, grain alcohol, ethanol
Formula: C2H5OH
Viscosity: Water thin
Sp. Gr.: 0.82

Remarks: Colorless, volatile liquid. b.p. 78°C / 172°F, freezing point -117°C / -178°F. Soluble in water, methyl alcohol and ether. Vapor pressure 43 mm @ 20°C / 68°F, flash point 14°C / 57°F. Used as a solvent and in the manufacture of dyes, synthetic drugs, synthetic rubber, detergents, cleaning solutions, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and explosives. Used as an anti-freeze, as a beverage and a rocket fuel. Flammable liquid.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as are mechanical shaft seals.



ETHYL CHLORIDE

Other Names: Chloroethane
Formula: C2H5C1
Viscosity: Thin
Sp. Gr.: 0.92

Remarks: Colorless, highly flammable, volatile liquid. Miscible with most of the commonly used solvents, m.p. -140°C / -220°F, b.p. 12°C / 54°F, vapor pressure 1000 mm @ 20ºC / 68°F, flash point (closed cup) -50°C / -58°F. Used as an anesthetic in medicine, in organic synthesis and as an alkylating agent; solvent for sulfur, fats, oils, resins and waxes. Used as an insecticide. Ethyl chloride is extremely flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although the presence of water can cause rapid corrosion. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended and Viton? has fair compatibility. Mechanical shaft seals recommended.



ETHYLENE ALCOHOL - See Ethylene Glycol



ETHYLENE CHLORIDE - See Ethylene Dichloride



ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE

Other Names: Ethylene chloride, 1.2-dichloroethane
Formula: C1CH2CH2C1
Viscosity: Thin
Sp. Gr.: 1.25

Remarks: Colorless, oily liquid. Will not corrode metals. miscible with most solvents, slightly soluble in water. b.p. 83°C / 181°F, freezing point 35°C / 95°F, flash point 21°C / 70°F. Used in making vinyl chloride; as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes, rubber, various resins, gums; used as a fumigant, in dry-cleaning solvents, in lacquers, paints, varnish and finish removers, as a metal degreaser, in soaps and in wetting or penetrating agents. Ethylene dichloride is flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



ETHYLENE GLYCOL

Other Names: Ethylene alcohol, glycol
Formula: CH2OHCH2OH
Sp. Gr.: 1.1
Viscosity: 7 to 15 cPs. range; 50-50 mix by weight with water has viscosity of 8 cPs. at 24°C / 75°F

Remarks: Clear, colorless, syrupy liquid. Sweet taste. Hygroscopic. Lowers freezing point of water; soluble in water, alcohol and ether. b.p. 197°C / 387°F, freezing point -13°C / 9°F, flash point 116°C / 241°F. Used as an anti-freeze in automobiles, for brake fluid; used in making polyester fibers in films, as a dye solvent; used in lacquers, resins, printing inks, glue mixtures, as a solvent for waxes, resins and drugs.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



ETHYLENE OXIDE

Formula: CH2 CH2O
Sp. Gr.: 0.87
Viscosity: Water-thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid; soluble in most organic solvents and miscible with water in all proportions. Explosive limits of vapor in air 3 to 80%, b.p. 11°C / 52°F, flash point (open cup) below -20°C / -4°F. Basic material used in manufacturing several of the glycols, in making acrylonitrile, ethanolamines; used in making detergents; petroleum emulsifiers; also used as a rocket propellant. Ethylene oxide is extremely flammable; vapor is harmful and may cause burns. Spontaneous combustion may take place at or near ambient temperatures.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. Due to the explosive nature of this product, double mechanical seals or a sealless design pump should be used.



FATS

Other Names: Animal fat, cold fat, liquid fat, hot fat, lard, hashed fat and ground fat
Viscosity: For liquid fat, hot fat or melted lard, viscosity is water-thin. For hashed fat or ground fat, viscosity is very indefinite, but on the order of 22,000 cPs.

Remarks: Handling fats, both liquid and ground, is most often encountered in packing or food processing plants. Ground pork fat normally presents no problems, but beef fat is much more difficult to handle because of its "dry" nature.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n is satisfactory for ambient temperature applications; Viton? may be required for high temperature applications. Use of a mechanical shaft seal depends on the product pumped. Cold fat applications generally required us of a packed pump.



FATTY ACID

Other Names: Olec acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid
Viscosity: Several hundred cPs., depending on the specific acid and temperature. Normal temperature range is from ambient to 93°C / 200°F.

Remarks: Fatty acids are used in the making of soaps and synthetic detergents, lubricants, rubber products, cosmetics, waterproofing and as a nutrient. Sp. Gr. 0.84 (typical).

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is generally acceptable although stainless steel may be required if slight corrosion on cast iron can not be tolerated. Viton?, PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



FILTER AID - See Diatomaceous Earth



FISH OIL

Viscosity: 20-70 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: 0.93

Remarks: Fish oils are a by-product of the cannery industry. Are used as nutrients, source of vitamins, in soaps and for leather dressing. Have a characteristic odor.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



FISH SOLUBLES

"Fish Solubles" is residue from canning plants, consisting of fish scales, skin, small bones, other non-usable parts of the fish, non-cannable fish, along with sand or other materials the fish might have had in his stomach at the time of the catch. "Fish Solubles" is shipped as liquid sludge and then stored in closed tanks at the point of use for several years to allow fermentation to take place. The fermentation process increases the nutritive value of the solubles so they are more effective when added to animal feed. As they ferment they become increasingly acidic, making them more difficult to handle corrosion-wise as they age.

Viscosity: Normally in the 220-5,500 cPs.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are normally acceptable. This product may be abrasive; choice of sealing options and abrasion resistant pump options should be considered based on the product handled.



FLUOROCARBONS - See Freons



FOAM - See Polyurethane Foams



FOOTS

Foots has several definitions, depending upon the industry under consideration. In the bean and seed processing (soy, cottonseed, etc.) It is the fibrous residue material after the beans have been processed and all of the oil completely removed; may include dirt and sand from the harvest fields. In the soap-making industry it is a mixture of soap, oil and impurities that precipitate out when natural fatty oils are refined by treatment with caustic soda. The make-up of "Foots" varies so widely in both industries that a pump recommendation is difficult to make. Some of the bean or seed Foots can build up within a pump, requiring that clean out or flush out features be considered. Foots, basically, are what is left after processing has been done in either industry and as a result, the pump recommendation should be based on each particular installation.



FORMALDEHYDE

Other Names: Oxymethylene, formic aldehyde, methanal, formalin
Formula: HCHO
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 for 37% solution
Viscosity: 37% solution - water-thin

Remarks: Colorless gas; soluble in water, alcohol and ether; polymerizes easily. Is usually handled as an aqueous solution with or without methanol which acts as an inhibitor of the polymerization. Properties of 37% solution (also called formaldehyde or formalin): clear, colorless liquid; pH 3.0. Used in urea and melamine resins, in making phenolic resins, ethylene glycol, fertilizer, dyes and medicine. Also used in embalming fluids and as a preservative. Formaldehyde causes irritation of the skin, eyes, nose and throat. Proceed with caution when selecting a pump for handling formaldehyde.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction may be used on an expendable basis. Percent concentration and end use of product may require other construction. PTFE and Kalrez? are recommended elastomers with Viton? rated fair. A mechanical shaft seal is recommended.



FORMALIN - See Formaldehyde



FREONS

Other Names: Fluorinated hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons
Formula: Depends on particular Freon
Sp. Gr.: 1.19-1.56
Viscosity: 0.2 to 0.4 cPs.

Remarks: Current use of Freons is limited mostly to refrigeration applications due to concerns of ozone depletion with Freons used as propellants or cleaning agents.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Choice of elastomers depends on the particular Freon used. Mechanical shaft seals or sealless pump designs are recommended.



FRUIT JUICES

Processing fruit juices presents some special problems because the acids contained in fruits are corrosive to many metals. There also can be corrosive action from some of the preservatives used.

Viscosity: Varies from thin to thick, depending on the stage in the process

Remarks: Processing of fruit juices may involve sanitary requirements, possible flushing cycles and handling of many additives and preservatives, as well as the fruit juices. Some viscosity may be involved, depending on the extent to which the juices have been concentrated.

Pump Notes: Pumps designed for sanitary service and constructed of stainless steel are normally required for this application.



FUEL OIL, #1, #2, #3, #4

Viscosity: 8 to 88 cPs., depending on number and temperature
Sp. Gr.: 0.90

Remarks: Fuel oil is defined as any liquid petroleum product used for generation of heat or power, exclusive of liquids such as kerosene and lighter. #1 fuel oil is normally used in vaporizing type burners; #2 is used for domestic heating; #'s 3 and 4 are used in industrial furnaces.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are normally satisfactory but Viton? may also be required. Mechanical shaft seals are recommended.



FUEL OIL, #5 & #6

Other Names: Bunker fuels, Bunker "C" Oil
Viscosity: Varies from 66-13,000 cPs. @ 21°C / 70°F. Normally handled at temperatures in the 120 to 150F range (50-1700 CPs.) for ease of handling.
Sp. Gr.: 0.90

Remarks: Fuel oil #5 and #6 are semi-solid or very viscous at room temperatures and must be preheated before being used. They are used as a fuel in many large commercial and public buildings as well as in large industrial plants and power plants. Occasional abrasives and/or sludge in these heavy oils can cause some pump or seal problems. Avoid the use of long suction lines with heavy fuel oils to prevent cavitation-type problems.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are usually acceptable with PTFE sometimes required depending on the particular liquid. Mechanical shaft seals are recommended.



FULLER'S EARTH

A variety of clay-like material which has high natural adsorptive powers. It is used for decolorizing of oils and other liquids, for floor-sweeping compounds, cosmetics, rubber filler and as a filtering medium. It is slightly abrasive. Pumps handling liquids containing Fuller's earth should take the same precautions as recommended under diatomaceous earth, q.v.



FUMIGANT

A broad term used almost synonymously with insecticide to mean those liquids, sprays or gases used to control harmful insects. These liquids can be highly corrosive, depending on concentration and liquid in which they are in solution. They are often highly toxic to plant and animal life.

A pump recommendation should be based on liquid supplier's suggestion, along with an understanding of user's procedure for pumping the liquid.



FURFURAL

Other Names: Ant oil, artificial; furfuraldehyde
Formula: C4H3OCHO
Viscosity: Thin
Sp. Gr.: 1.2

Remarks: Colorless liquid; soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, m.p. -36°C / -32°F, b.p. 162°C / 260°F, flash point (open cup) 65°C / 150°F. Furfural is made from oat hulls, rice hulls or corn cobs. Used as a solvent in the refining of lubricating oils, solvent for nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, used in the preparation of synthetic resins, as a weed killer and fungicide.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



GASOLINE

Formula: Varies between C6H14 and C10H22
Sp. Gr.: 0.75
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Gasoline is a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons suitable for operation of internal combustion engines. It is also used as a solvent. It is dangerous because of its flammable nature.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton? elastomers are recommended. Pay special attention to inlet conditions based vapor pressure of the particular grade.



GELATIN

A protein obtained from collagen by boiling skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, etc. with water. It is similar to animal glue except that the raw materials are more carefully selected and cleaner. Type A gelatin is obtained from acid treated raw materials and type B from alkali treated raw materials.

Viscosity: Varies widely, depending on temperature and liquid used to put gelatin into solution. Normally handled in 49° to 71°C / 120° to 160°F range.

Remarks: Gelatin is a colorless, transparent, odorless, tasteless material available in sheets, flakes or powder. It swells up and absorbs five to ten times its weight of water; soluble in hot water, glycerol and acetic acid; insoluble in alcohol and other organic solvents. It is used in making photographic film, sizing, plastic compounds, textile and paper work, foods, rubber substitutes, adhesives, cements, capsules for medicinals, etc. Select pump for maximum viscosity that might be encountered; gelatin may set up in pump during down times; provision for heating should be considered along with consideration of oversize ports.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory but may vary depending on the requirements of the end user. Buna n elastomers are generally acceptable but should be verified with the end user. Use of a mechanical shaft seal depends on viscosity of the particular product.



GENETRON

Trade name for a line of fluorinated hydrocarbons made by Allied Chemical's General Chemical Division. They have numbers and properties similar to Freons, q.v.



GLUCOSE - See Corn Syrup



GLUE - See Adhesive



GLYCERIN

Other Names: Glycerol, glycyl alcohol
Formula: C3H5(OH)3
Sp. Gr.: 1.3
Viscosity: Varies from 44 to 1,000 cPs. depending on temperature and concentration

Remarks: Clear, colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid; hygroscopic. m.p. 18°C / 64°F, b.p. 290°C / 554°F; soluble in water and alcohol; insoluble in ether; flash point 177°C / 350°F. Used in alkyd resins, cellophane, explosives, ester gums, pharmaceuticals, perfumery, cosmetics, foodstuffs, as a solvent, in printer's ink rolls, as an emulsifying agent, in anti-freeze, for paper coatings and finishes, for special soaps, lubricants and softeners and as a hydraulic fluid.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



GLYCEROL - See Glycerin



GLYCOL - See Ethylene Glycol



GRAPE JUICE - See Fruit Juices



GREASE

Other Names: Lubricating grease, automotive grease, bearing grease, etc. For hot cooking grease see Cooking Oils, Hot.

Viscosity: From 2,100 cPs. to several hundred thousand cPs. There are several different grades of greases running from an NLGI grade of 000 up through grade #6. NLGI is the National Lubricating Grease Institute. The smaller the grade number, the less viscous the grease. The viscosity of grease is often indicated by penetration number as determined by the distance a plumb bob of a known weight will sink into the surface of the grease during a given time period; thus, the higher the penetration number, the softer the grease, e.g., a number 1 grade grease has a penetration range from 310 to 340, while a number 4 grease has a penetration range of 175-205.

Remarks: Lubricating greases are generally mixtures of a mineral oil with one or more metallic soaps; the most common soaps are those of sodium, calcium, barium, aluminum, lead, lithium, potassium and zinc. The texture of grease may be smooth, buttery, ropy, fibrous, spongy or rubbery. Texture does not necessarily indicate the viscosity.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Shaft packing is normally used although a mechanical shaft seal may be used if viscosity permits. Grease is normally shear thinning so special attention must be paid to pump port sizing and motor sizing for correct horsepower.



HEAT TRANSFER LIQUIDS

Heat transfer liquids are generally made from one of the following: mineral oil, diphenyls, modified terphenyls or polyalkalene glycols. Heat transfer liquid is also known by a variety of trade names such as Dowtherm, Mobiltherm, Therminol, Ucon, etc.

Other Names: Heat transfer oil, HTO
Sp. Gr.: Approximately 1.0 @ pumping temperature; varies with liquid and temperature
Viscosity: Less than 1 cPs. at pumping temperatures

Remarks: Heat transfer liquids are used instead of steam for transferring heat from a source to a point of use such as dies, presses, cooking vessels, processing equipment, etc. Many of them can operate at temperatures up to 315°C / 600°F.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are normally recommended due to heat but PTFE or Kalrez? may also be needed. Mechanical shaft seals are recommended. Because of the low viscosity, pump capacity is sometimes less than nominal. To extend the service life, it is recommended that the pumps be run at rated speed or less and that the operating pressure in the system be kept as low as possible. Heat transfer liquid pumps are often critical to the success of an extensive operation, standby pumps should be considered.



HEPTANE

Other Names: Dipropylmethane
Formula: CH3(CH2)5CH3
Sp. Gr.: 0.68
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Volatile, colorless liquid; highly flammable; freezing point -90°C / -130°F, b.p. 98°C / 208°F, flash point -1°C / 30°F; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform; insoluble in water. Used as a standard for determining octane ratings, as an anesthetic, solvent, etc. Heptane is flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



HEXANE

Formula: C6H14
Sp. Gr.: 0.66
Viscosity: 0.4 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, volatile liquid; highly flammable; b.p. 68°C / 154°F, flash point -22°C / -9°F; soluble in alcohol, acetone and ether; insoluble in water. Used as a solvent, especially as an extraction solvent for vegetable oils, also as a paint diluent and as an alcohol denaturant. Hexane is highly flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as are mechanical shaft seals.



HONEY

Other Names: Bees honey
Viscosity: 1,000-11,000 cPs. depending on how much moisture has been removed and on pumping temperature
Sp. Gr.: Approximately 1.2

Pump Notes: Pump construction depends on requirements of the end user. A pump suited for sanitary service may be specified.



HOT MELT

Hot melt adhesives are those adhesives that do not contain solvents. They bond by being applied as a hot liquid and solidifying as they cool. Hot melts can produce a rapid bond because they bond as soon a the heat is removed. Hot melts normally are handled in the temperature range from 149 to 260°C / 300 to 5000F. See discussion on similar materials under Adhesive.

Pump Notes: Pump construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on the corrosive nature of individual adhesives. Elastomers also vary depending on individual adhesives and pumping temperature. Shaft sealing may be packing or special lip seals. Generally, adhesives are very viscous and the pump design must be capable of handling those viscosities. Adhesives may also contain abrasives and the pump design must be capable of handling particulate.



HUMBLETHERM 500 - See Heat Transfer Liquids



HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

Other Names: Fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Among the more common fire resistant hydraulic fluids are those made up of water and glycol with some thickeners and additives, phosphate esters and water in oil emulsions with additives.
Viscosity: Viscosities of the above liquids range from 22 to 110 cPs. at ambient temperatures

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers vary depending on the particular grade of hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic fluids are normally used at high differential pressures and a pump design capable of those pressures must be used.



HYDRAULIC OILS - Also See Hydraulic Fluids

Viscosity: Normally in the 22 to 66 cPs. range at ambient temperatures

Remarks: There are many brands of hydraulic oils. They are all basically petroleum oils with various additives to enhance specific properties.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers vary depending on the particular grade of hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic fluids are normally used at high differential pressures and a pump design capable of those pressures must be used.



HYDROCARBONS

Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon and hydrogen. Under ordinary conditions some of the hydrocarbons are gases, others are liquids, and still others are solids. Propane, gasoline, kerosene, lubricating oils, Vaseline and paraffin are all hydrocarbons. Other hydrocarbons serve as the raw material for dyes, medicines and other end products.

Paraffin Hydrocarbons - A mixture of some of the solid compounds of this series. Paraffin hydrocarbons satisfy the general formula CnH2n+2. The low carbon compounds of this series, such as methane, ethane, propane and butane, are gases under ordinary conditions. Compounds with 5 to 16 carbon atoms are liquids, and those materials that contain more than 16 carbon atoms are solid at ordinary conditions. Paraffin hydrocarbons are also known as saturated hydrocarbons.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Hydrocarbons characterized by a molecular structure with 6 carbon atom rings. The solvents benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene, etc., are all typical aromatic hydrocarbons. The compounds of this series are liquids under ordinary conditions.

Olefin Hydrocarbons - Stable organic liquids defined by a molecular structure containing at least one pair of double bonded carbon atoms. Ethylene and propylene are typical examples of elefin hydrocarbons.

Normal Hydrocarbons - These are compounds in which all of the carbon atoms of the molecule are in a single unbranched chain. Typical of this group is normal-hexane.

Branched Chain Hydrocarbons - A compound in which not all of the carbon atoms of the molecule are in a single chain. The simplest is isobutane.



INK - See Printing Ink



INSECTICIDES

A broad term used almost synonymously with fumigants to mean those liquids, sprays or gases used to control harmful insects. These liquids can be highly corrosive, depending on concentration and liquid in the solution. Oftentimes they are highly toxic to plant and animal life.

Pump Notes: Specific recommendations are not possible as there is such a diversity in chemical make up of individual insectisides.



IRON OXIDE SLURRY

Other Names: Ferrous oxide slurry
Viscosity: 22 to 1,648 cPs. depending on concentration, vehicle and additives

Remarks: Iron oxides are used in heavy-duty paint pigments such as used in railway finishes, marine paints and metal primers. They are also used for magnetic tape, polishing compounds, as pigment in rubber products and in grease paints.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomers depend on the solvents used in the slurry. Iron oxide is very abrasive which necessitates use of a pump suitable for abrasive liquid service.



ISOBUTANE

Other Names: 2-methylpropane, trimethylmethane
Formula: (CH3)2CHCH3
Sp. Gr.: 0.56
Viscosity: 0.1 cPs.

Remarks: A colorless, stable gas that do