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작성일 : 09-08-26 15:04
펌프교실 (Pump School) - 액 ( Liquid ) 의 특성 (2 page / 2 )
 글쓴이 : 관리자
조회 : 5,445  
펌프의 선정에 있어 매우 중요한 요소가운데 하나는 그 이송액의 특성을 잘 파악하여 그에 맞는 재질의 펌프 고르는 것입니다. 다음은 전편 ( 1 page / 2 ) 에 이어 ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL 부터 순서로 이송액의 특성을 나타내는 자료 이니 업무에 참고가 되었 으면 합니다. 2 page / 2



ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL

Other Names: Isopropylcarbinol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol
Formula: (CH3)2CHCH2OH
Sp. Gr.: 0.81.
Viscosity: Thin

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



ISOCYANATE - See Toluene Diisocyanate



ISOPROPANOL - See Isopropyl Alcohol



ISOPROPYL ACETATE

Formula: CH3COOCH(CH3)2
Sp. Gr.: 0.87
Viscosity: 0.5 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, aromatic liquid. Stable, with a b.p. of 89ºC / 192ºF, and miscible with most of the common organic solvents. It is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, fats, oils, waxes, gums, natural and synthetic resins, as well as in making artificial leather, dopes, films, lacquers, plastics and synthetic perfumes.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

Other Names: IPA, dimethylcarbinol, isopropanol
Formula: (CH3)2CHOH
Sp. Gr.: 0.80
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Colorless, clear, mobile liquid; flammable, b.p. 82ºC / 180ºF, vapor pressure 33 mm Hg at 20ºC / 68ºF, flash point 22ºC / 72ºF; soluble in water and ether. Used for making acetone; used as a solvent for oils, gums, resins; used as a deicing agent for liquid fuels; used in pharmaceuticals, perfumes, lacquers, as a preservative, antifreeze and rocket fuel. Isopropyl alcohol is flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



ISOTRON

Trade name for a line of fluorinated hydrocarbons made by Pennsalt Chemical Corporation. They have numbers and properties similar to Freons, q.v.



JET FUELS

Jet fuels are petroleum products similar to kerosene used in jet engines. The most common jet fuels now in use are:

JP-4 - Widely used fuel made up of approximately 65% gasoline and 35% light petroleum distillate.

JP-5 - A highly refined kerosene having a flash point of 60ºC / 140ºF. And a freezing point of -40ºC / -40ºF. Used by carrier based aircraft.

JP-6 - A higher kerosene cut than JP-4 with less impurities; used in advanced engines.

Commercial jets use ASTM type A, A-1, or B. A and A-1 are kerosene types. Type B is a gasoline-kerosene type similar to JP-4.

Viscosity: 1.5 to 6 cPs.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton? are recommended depending on the particular grade.



KETONE - See specific Ketone such as Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)



LACQUER

A type of solvent-base paint that forms a film by evaporation of the solvent or by congealing from a molten state. The film-forming constituents consist of cellulose esters or ethers especially nitro-cellulose, often in combination with alkyd resins. Typical solvents used are ethyl alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, toluene or xylene. Lacquer is used for coating metals and wood, especially furniture.

Viscosity: From 22 to 21,978 cPs. depending on make-up
Sp. Gr.: 0.9 to 1.0

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are required. A mechanical seal or sealless design pump may be used depending on viscosity and characteristic of the lacquer.



LACTIC ACID

Other Names: Milk acid
Formula: CH3CHOHCOOH
Sp. Gr.: 1.2
Viscosity: 40 to 100 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, syrupy liquid. b.p. 122ºC / 251ºF, m.p. 18ºC / 64ºF; miscible with water, alcohol and glycerin. Used in foods and beverages, as a flavoring and preservative; also used in plastics and textiles.

Pump Notes: Stainless steel is required. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended.



LANOLIN

Other Names: Wool fat, hydrous
Viscosity: Widely variable, depending on amount of water

Remarks: A yellowish-white, ointment-like mass incorporating not less than 25% and not more than 30% water. Soluble in ether; insoluble in water; derived from the wool of sheep. Used as an ointment base, in cosmetics; leather dressing as a finishing and softening agent and in rosin soaps. May be mixed with other oils or fatty acids.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Shaft sealing depends on the viscosity of the product.



LARD

Lard melts at from 38º to 43ºC / 100º to 110ºF. It has a very sharp demarcation between solid and liquid. For handling both solid and melted lard, see pump construction recommendations under Fats.

Other Names: Hog fat, fat



LATEX

LATEX - A milk-like fluid in which small globules or particles of natural or synthetic rubber or plastic are suspended in water.

Viscosity: Varies; generally in the range from 20 cPs. to 5,500 cPs.

Remarks: Latex is used in paints, in producing special papers, in adhesives, as a bonding age in fibers and to make foam and sponge rubber.

Pump Notes: Construction varies and may range from cast iron to stainless steel. Elastomer recommendation varies as well. Latex is very shear sensitive; pump and shaft sealing selection are critical.



LEAD

Chemical Symbol: Pb
Sp. Gr.: 11.3
Viscosity: Unknown, but relatively thin

Remarks: Lead melts at about 329ºC / 625ºF. It must be handled at this or somewhat higher temperatures. Molten lead is used in molding many of the end products made from lead, such as storage battery plates, bearings, pipes, etc. Remember to take into account the specific gravity of the lead when making pressure calculations.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Pumps are usually submerged in molten lead to avoid sealing problems.



LECITHIN

Viscosity: Varies widely over the range from 1,100 cPs. to 11,000 cPs. depending on make-up and temperature
Sp. Gr. : 1.0 to 1.2

Remarks: Lecithin is a mixture of acetone-insoluble phosphatides and triglycerides, fatty acids and carbohydrates. It is derived usually from soybean oil, but may be obtained from corn, other vegetable seeds and egg yolks. In the commercial form it is a light brown, viscous semi-liquid with a characteristic odor, is insoluble in acetone, partly soluble in water and soluble in chloroform and benzene. It is used as emulsifying, dispersing, wetting and penetrating agent; also in margarine, chocolate and candies, animal feeds, paints, printing ink, soaps and cosmetics, blending agent in oils and resins.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal can be used depending on liquid viscosity.



LEMON JUICE - See Fruit Juices



LINSEED OIL

Other Names: Flaxseed oil
Viscosity: Ranges from 200 to 1600 cPs. in its raw or refined state. Blown or boiled linseed oil may have viscosities of 11,000 cPs. or higher.
Sp. Gr.: 0.95

Remarks: Linseed oil is a golden-yellow or brown oil with bland taste; thickens and hardens on exposure to air; it is a typical drying oil used on paints. Soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide and turpentine. Used in making paints, varnishes, linoleum and oil cloth, printing inks, synthetic resins, caulking, soap and pharmaceuticals.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal may be used depending on liquid viscosity.



LINSEED OIL, BLOWN

Linseed oil which is bodied, i.e., its viscosity is increased by having air bubbled through it while heated to 125ºC / 257ºF. The resulting product dries to a harder film and is used largely in interior paints and enamels. Pump construction recommendations are the same as for linseed oil for the high viscosities.



LINSEED OIL, BOILED

This term is a misnomer since the oil is not boiled. Small amounts of manganese, lead or cobalt are added to hot linseed oil. They serve to accelerate the drying of the oil. Pump construction recommendations are the same as for linseed oil for the high viscosities.



LIQUID FEED

Other Names: Cattle feed solution, liquid cattle feed, liquid supplement; also known by such trade names as Morea, Beef Shake, Mol-Mix, CLS, etc.
Viscosity: Varies from 20 cPs. to several thousand at ambient temperatures. May go to 11,000 cPs. or more at sub-zero temperatures, depending on make-up of particular liquid feed.
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 to 1.3

Remarks: Liquid feed is normally made up of molasses, urea and a variety of additives such as trace minerals, vitamins, phorphorus, etc.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are generally acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal may be used depending on liquid viscosity.



LIQUID STICK

Liquid stick is the product left after the water vapor is removed from the juices of cooked meats. It is primarily protein and is a highly viscous, sticky semi-liquid, difficult to pump. It is normally handled in a temperature range of 82ºC / 180ºF. Liquid stick is a by-product of packing plants.



LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS - See LP-Gas



LP-GAS

Other Names: Liquefied hydrocarbon gas, liquefied petroleum gas; propane is the best known LP-Gas
Formula Propane: C3H8
Sp. Gr. Propane: 0.51
Viscosity: .1 cPs.

Remarks: LP-Gas is a compressed or liquefied gas obtained as a by-product in petroleum refining or natural gasoline manufacture. Propane is a colorless gas, has no corrosive action on metals, boils at -42ºC / -44ºF. It is used primarily for a domestic fuel, an industrial fuel, motor fuel and in chemical synthesis.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal is required due to the hazardous nature of this liquid.



LUBRICATING GREASE - See Grease



LUBRICATING OIL

Other Names: Lube oil
Viscosity: Ranges widely, depending on the grade or number of oil
Sp. Gr.: 0.90

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal is normally used.



LYE - See Sodium Hydroxide



MAPP GAS

Other Names: Methylacetylene Propadiene, stabilized
Sp. Gr.: 0.58 @ 16ºC / 60ºF
Vapor Pressure: 94 PSIG @ 21ºC / 70ºF
Viscosity: 0.1 to 0.2 cPs.

Remarks: MAPP Gas is an industrial fuel gas produced by Dow and distributed by Air Reduction Company. It is used as a replacement for acetylene, natural gas and propane in the metal cutting industry.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal is required due to the hazardous nature of this liquid.



MAYONNAISE

Other Names: Salad dressing
Viscosity: Appears very viscous but is shear thinning.

Remarks: Mayonnaise is a thick sauce of egg yolk beaten up with additions of edible vegetable oil, vinegar, salt and water. At some stages in production mayonnaise may change state if sheared excessively.

Pump Notes: Stainless steel construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A designed for shear sensitive liquids must be used.



MEAT EMULSION

Finely ground meat used for wieners, bologna, sausage, etc. Viscosity is very thick and extremely difficult to measure.

Pump Notes: Stainless steel construction is recommended due to sanitary requirements. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Meat emulsion is difficult to handle. Use a pump designed for this service.



MELAMINE RESINS

Viscosity: 200 to 1000 cPs.

Melamine resins are made from melamine and formaldehyde. They are widely used as molding compounds with cellulose, wood-flour or mineral powders as fillers; they may incorporate coloring materials. Also used for laminating, boil proof adhesives, for increasing wet strength of paper, and for textile treatment to achieve crease and wrinkle resistance. By varying percentages of the main constituents, and by the use of additives, resins with many different properties can be made. Butylated melamine resins and melamine-acrylic resins are examples of these variations. Melamine resins have high retention of color and luster at high temperatures and have fast curing rates at relatively low temperatures.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. Consider use of a mechanical shaft seal or sealless design pump.



MERCAPTANS

Viscosity: Thin

A group of organic compounds similar to alcohol but having some of the oxygen replaced by sulfur. There are several kinds of mercaptans such as ethyl, lauryl, etc. They have a strong, disagreeable odor; are frequently used for the "stench" in LP-Gas or natural gas.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless pump design should be used as Mercaptan is frequently used in hazardous areas.



METHANOL

Other Names: Methyl alcohol, wood alcohol
Formula: CH3OH
Sp. Gr.: 0.97
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Clear, colorless, volatile, flammable liquid; poisonous. Soluble in water, alcohol and ether, m.p. 98ºC / 208ºF, flash point (open cup) 16ºC / 60ºF. Used in the production of formaldehyde, as an automobile antifreeze, as a general solvent, as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol, rocket fuel. Methanol is flammable and the vapor is harmful. May be fatal or cause blindness if swallowed; cannot be made non-poisonous.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



METHYL ALCOHOL - See Methanol



METHYLBENZENE - See Toluene



METHYL CHLORIDE

Other Names: Chloromethane
Formula: CH3C1
Sp. Gr.: 0.92
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Colorless, non-corrosive, liquefiable gas, non-irritant but poisonous; b.p. -24ºC / -11ºF, m.p. -98ºC / -144ºF, flash point below 0ºC / 32ºF. Soluble in alcohol, benzene and carbontetrachloride. Used in making silicones, as a refrigerant, in medicine, as a fluid in thermometers, as a low temperature solvent, as a propellant in high pressure aerosols and as a pesticide. Flammable liquid. Vapor harmful. Corrosive in presence of water.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Do not use a pump with any aluminum parts. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



METHYLENE CHLORIDE

Other Names: Chloromethane
Formula: CH2C12
Sp. Gr.: 1.3
Viscosity: .4 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, volatile liquid. Poisonous when inhaled. Soluble in alcohol and ether, m.p. -97ºC / -142ºF, b.p. 40ºC / 104ºF. Used as a component of paint removers, as a fumigant, solvent for alkoids, crude rubbers, oils, resins, waxes; in textile and leather coatings, refrigeration, local anesthetic, for the extraction of oils, fats, perfumes, flavors and drugs, as a propellant for aerosol and a blowing agent in foam. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin or breathing of vapor. Corrosive in presence of water.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Do not use a pump with any aluminum parts. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



METHYL ETHYL KETONE

Other Names: Ethyl methyl ketone, 2-butanone, MEK
Formula: CH3COC2H5
Sp. Gr.: 0.82
Vapor Pressure: Approximately 90mm Hg. absolute at 21ºC / 70ºF
Viscosity: 0.4 cPs. / 2.22 SSU

Remarks: Colorless liquid; acetone-like ordor; flammable. b.p. 80ºC / 176ºF, m.p. -86ºC / -122ºF, flash point -4ºC / 24ºF. Soluble in water, alcohol and ether. Miscible with oil. Used in lacquers, dewaxing of lubricating oils, paint removers, in adhesives, dopes, manufacture of smokeless powder, in cleaning fluids and printing. Flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



MINERAL OIL - Also see Lubricating Oils

Any liquid product of petroleum within the viscosity range of liquids commonly called oils. Mineral oil is also the official title for a grade of petrolatum, q.v.

Viscosity: From 20 to 1000 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: 0.8 to 0.9

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



MINERAL SPIRITS - See Naphtha, Painter's



MOBILTHERM - See Heat Transfer Liquids



MOLASSES

Other Names: Beet molasses, cane molasses
Viscosity: From a few hundred cPs. 22,000 cPs.

Remarks: In the raw cane sugar industry in the United States, molasses is defined as the syrupy mother liquor which is left after the sucrose has been removed from the cane juice by concentration. If only one crop of crystals had been removed, the mother liquor is called FIRST MOLASSES. If the second crop has been removed after concentration, the product is termed SECOND MOLASSES and so on. The final mother liquor from which no more cane sugar can be extracted is called Final Molasses, Black Strap Molasses. Molasses is used as an animal feed, in food for human consumption, as a raw material for Butanol and acetone; it is also mixed with urea to make an animal feed called "liquid feed." Viscosity of liquid feed is generally quite low with respect to most grades of molasses.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory but stainless steel may also be specified because of sanitary reasons. Buna n elastomers are usually recommended. Pumps are normally furnished with shaft packing.



MONOETHANOLAMINE - See Ethanolamine



MONOMER

A compound usually containing carbon and of simple structure which is capable of conversion to polymers, synthetic resins or elastomers by combination with itself or similar molecules or compounds. Styrene is the monomer from which polystyrene resins are produced; vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate are the monomers from which "Vinylite" resins are obtained. Styrene and butadiene are the monomers from which SBR synthetic rubber is obtained.

Pump Notes: Since monomer is a general term, there is no construction that generally applies.



MORPHOLINE

Formula: C4H8ONH
Sp. Gr.: 1.0
Viscosity: 4 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, mobile, hygroscopic liquid. A mild base. Miscible with water. Soluble in alcohol and ether, b.p. 129°C / 264°F, m.p. -5°C / 23°F, vapor pressure 6.6 mm @ 20°C / 68°F, flash point (open cup) 38°C / 100°F. Used as a solvent for dyes, resins and waxes, as an emulsifying agent, to make water resistant adhesives and polishes and as a corrosion inhibitor.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



MUSTARD

Viscosity: Depends on the mix. Estimated 5,500 cPs.

Remarks: Mustard is the yellow powder of the mustard seed mixed with a liquid for use as a condiment.

Pump Notes: Stainless steel construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended.



NAPHTHA

The term is usually applied to a narrow-boiling-range fraction of petroleum with volatility somewhere between that of gasoline and kerosene. There are many different types, some of which are listed below.

PETROLEUM NAPHTHA

A general term applied to refined or partially refined petroleum products and liquid products of natural gas which are distilled off in the temperature range of 177-238°C / 350-460°F.

PAINTER'S NAPHTHA

Also called naphtha, V.M. & P. - varnish makers' & painters', varnish makers' naphtha, petroleum spirits, petroleum thinner, mineral spirits, turpentine substitute, mineral thinner, mineral turpentine. Any of a number of narrow-boiling-range fractions of petroleum with boiling points of about 93-204°C / 200-400°F according to the specific use.

SOLVENT NAPHTHA

A term applied to aromatic solvents derived from coal tar. Information below applies to all naphthas listed.

Viscosity: Water thin

Remarks: Naphthas are used primarily as solvents for a variety of applications such as thinning paints and varnishes, as a source for certain petro chemicals.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction s satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



NAPHTHALENE

Other Names: Tar camphor
Formula: C10H8
Sp. Gr.: 1.14
Viscosity: 0.8 cPs.

Remarks: White crystalline, volatile flakes; strong coal-tar odor; soluble in benzene; m.p. 80°C., b.p. 218°C., flash point 176°F. Used as a moth repellent, fungicide, cutting fluid, lubricant in synthetic resins, as a preservative, solvent and for textile chemicals. May be some tendency for crystals to form.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal may be used but should include proper circulation for any crystals formed.



OIL - See specific oil, such as Lubricating Oil, Fuel Oil, etc.



OLEIC ACID - See Fatty Acid



OLIVE OIL - See Vegetable Oil



ORANGE JUICE - See Fruit Juice



ORGANIC SOLVENTS - See Solvents



ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID - See Phosphoric Acid



PAINT

Other Names: Many names are used to describe various types of paints or liquids used in various stages of the making of paints, e.g., primer, abrasive paint, hot bituminous paint, latex paint, water soluble, non-abrasive, Flocoat, paint paste, paint base, alkyd base, epoxy paint, acrylic paint, etc., etc.

Paint is a liquid mixture which can be applied to surfaces to form a dry, thin, protective or decorative film. Paint is composed of a solid (pigment) and a liquid vehicle. The vehicle consists of a binder which forms a film and usually a volatile solvent to improve the ease of application. Paints may be either water-base or oil-base. Oil-base paints have as the thinner organic liquids such as turpentine, naphtha, benzene, acetone or an alcohol.

Some paint binders form film by oxidation or polymerization. Examples of these are drying oils and phenolic or melamine resins. Other binders form films by evaporation of the thinner. Still other binders form a film when particles coagulate from a latex or dispersion of synthetic rubbers.

Paints also contain small amounts of plasticizers, driers, extenders, emulsifiers, stabilizers, etc.

Viscosity: Varies from 20 cPs. to 5,500 cPs. normally, with some of the paste-like materials going much higher

Remarks: Paints are used, in addition to the normally accepted applications of protective and decorative coatings, for such things as imparting resistance to corrosion, fire or mildew and fungus growth, providing electrical insulation, reduction of frictional resistance, etc.

Pumps are used for handling paints and their constituents at all stages of production. Pumps are used in feeding liquid to and taking it from sand grinders in preparation of the pigments, in the mixing and blending of the various paints when they are being compounded, for circulating, transferring and delivering directly to the point of application, such as a spray head or a striper.

Some paints are shear sensitive; the latex and emulsion type should be handled cautiously, particularly if they are recirculated. Many pumping systems are flushed when colors are changed or at the end of a run, so provision should be made for handling a thin solvent as well as for the paint itself.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may be required depending on the paint handled. Elastomer recommendations depend on the solvent used. Many paints or paint constituents are abrasive and must be handled with a pump designed to handle abrasives.



PALMITIC ACID - See Fatty Acid



PAPER COATING

Paper coating is basically a starch slurry with a high percentage (up to 70%) of finely ground clay mixed in. Some paper coatings may also include small amounts of other materials such as titanium dioxide (extremely abrasive), methyl ethyl ketone, latex, toluene and alcohol.

Viscosity: In the 20,000 cPs. range as measured on normal viscosity testing equipment. Liquid is shear thinning. The estimated viscosity as it passes through the pump is in the range of 2,000 cPs. Use of 2,000 cPs. for determining capacity and horsepower gives reasonable results.

Sp. Gr.: Varies from 1.3 to 1.7

Remarks: Paper coating provides the "slick" surface to paper stock used for magazines. Coating is normally applied by blade coaters.

Pump Notes: Stainless steel construction is frequently used to maintain product color and purity. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Paper coating is abrasive and a mechanical shaft seal and pump design must be selected that are suitable for handling abrasives



PARAFFIN

Other Names: Paraffin wax, paraffin hydrocarbon
Viscosity: Solid at ambient temperatures, almost water-thin when melted (melts above 1200F)

Remarks: White, translucent, waxy, tasteless, odorless solid. Soluble in benzene, warm alcohol, chloroform and olive oil. Insoluble in water and acids. m.p. in the range of 49°C to 65°C / 120°F to 150°F. Used in the manufacture of candles, wax paper, waterproofing wood, impregnating matches, as a lubricant, for preserving eggs, in making crayons, in ointments, preservative coating for food products, phonograph records, floor polishes, cosmetics and in packing tobacco products.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n or Viton? elastomers are recommended depending on temperature. A mechanical shaft seal may be used.



PASTE - See Adhesive



PEANUT BUTTER

Viscosity: Ranges from 2,000 to 22,000 cPs., varying as make-up and temperature. Normal pumping temperature is from 32°C to 82°C / 90°F to 180°F.
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 to 1.2

Remarks: Peanut butter is made by mixing ground up peanuts with various additives and fillers. From the mixer peanut butter is pumped through a deaerator and/or a heat exchanger to remove entrained air and to drop the temperature prior to being pumped to the jar filling machines.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory but stainless steel may be used because of sanitary requirements. Buna n elastomers are recommended.



PEANUT OIL - See Vegetable Oil



PENTACHLOROPHENOL

Other Names: PCP
Formula: C6C15OH
Sp. Gr.: 2.0
Viscosity: Thin. Depends on the liquid in which it is in solution.

Remarks: White powder or crystals; soluble in alcohol, acetone, pine oil, benzene. Used as a fungicide, bactericide, herbicide and as a wood preservative. Dust is harmful. Solutions can cause skin irritation.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PENTANE

Other Names: n-Pentane, amyl hydride
Formula: CH3(CH2)3
Sp. Gr.: 0.63.
Viscosity: Thin.

Remarks: A colorless, mobile, flammable liquid; freezing point -130°C / -202°F, b.p. 36°C / 97°F. Soluble in hydrocarbons, oils and ether; flash point -49°C / -57°F. It is one of the fractions of petroleum; is used as an anesthetic, for low temperature thermometers, as a solvent in extraction processes, as a general solvent, as a blowing agent in plastics and as a pesticide. Pentane is flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is amechanical shaft seal.



PERCHLOROETHYLENE

Other Names: "per", tetrachloroethylene, perk
Formula: Cl2C: CCl2
Sp. Gr.: 1.6
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid, nonflammable, nonexplosive, extremely stable. b.p. 121°C / 250°F, flash point none, miscible with alcohol, ether and oils in all proportions. Used as a dry cleaning solvent, vapor degreasing solvent, drying agent for metals and certain other solids, solvent for rubber, waxes, tar, paraffins, gum. May be corrosive in presence of water.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PERCHLOROMETHANE - See Carbon Tetrachloride



PETROLATUM

Other Names: White mineral oil, paraffin oil-white, Vaseline
Sp. Gr.: 0.85
Viscosity: Grease-like at room temperatures, turns to liquid at 38°C / 100°F; has a viscosity of 22 cPs. at its melting point

Remarks: Soluble in ether, carbon disulfide, benzene. Derived by distillation of one of the high boiling point petroleum fractions. Used in medicine, cosmetics, dispersants, diluents, plastics manufacture, as a binder in foods, as a defoaming agent, lubricant, as a release agent and as a protective coating.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PHENOL

Other Names: Carbolic acid, phenylic acid, benzophenol, hydrobenzene
Formula: C6H5OH
Sp. Gr.: 1.07
Viscosity: Phenol melts at 43°C / 110°F. It is thin in the molten state.

Remarks: White, crystalline mass; absorbs water from the air and liquefies, distinctive odor. Poisonous. m.p. 43°C / 110°F, b.p. 182°C / 360°F, flash point 83°C / 182°F. Soluble in alcohol, water, ether, chloroform, glycerol, carbon disulfide, petrolatum. Used in making phenolic resins, epoxy resins (bisphenol-A), in weed killers, as a solvent for lubricating oils, for making a number of acids and pharmaceuticals. Hazardous liquid; rapidly absorbed through the skin, causing severe burns.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is generally satisfactory but stainless steel may also be requested. Viton? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS - See Resins



PHOSPHORIC ACID

Other Names: Ortho phosphoric acid, phosphoric anhydride. Phosphorus pentoxide, formula P2O5, absorbs moisture to form phosphoric acid H3PO4.
Viscosity: At ambient temperatures, viscosity varies from thin at the 50 and 75% strengths to a syrupy liquid at the 85% strength, to crystals at 100% phosphoric acid.
Sp. Gr.: Solid - 1.8

Remarks: Phosphoric acid is a clear, colorless, odorless, sparkling liquid, or a transparent, crystalline solid, depending on the concentration and the temperature. The percent concentration of acid is frequently given as a percentage of P2O5, e.g., 75% phosphoric acid contains 54% P2O5, 58% phosphoric acid contains 42% P2O5. Phosphoric acid is used in making fertilizers, soaps and detergents, in pickling and rust-proofing of metals, in pharmaceuticals, sugar refining, water treatment, animal feeds, waxes and polishes and in foods. CAUTION! Phosphoric acid causes skin irritation. Some phosphoric acids contain impurities which can affect corrosive and abrasive nature of the acid.

Pump Notes: Stainless steel construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

Formula: C6H4(CO)2O
Sp. Gr.: 1.5
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: White, crystalline needles; soluble in alcohol; melts at 127°C / 260°F. Used in making alkyd resins, plasticizers, hardener for resins, used in making chlorinated products, insecticides and diethyl and dimenthyl phthalate. Phthalic anhydride sets up to a brittle solid when it comes in contact with moisture.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but other construction may be requested. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PITCH

Other Names: Coal-tar pitch, hot pitch, tar pitch, roof pitch. Pitch is a thick, dark-colored bituminous substance obtained either as the result of industrial destructive distillation, or as deposits in the earth. Pitch is usually insoluble in water, miscible with carbon disulfide and benzene; has a "tarry" odor. Pitch can be divided into several groups:

(1) Natural deposits - such as asphalt.

(2) Residues from the distillation of mineral oils.

(3) Residues from the distillation of tars. Typical of this group are coal tar pitch, wood tar pitch, pine tar pitch.

(4) Residues from the distillation of fusible organic substances. Fatty acid pitch is typical of this group.

Viscosity: Ranging from 22 to1,100 cPs., depending on particular type of pitch and temperature at which it is being handled. Typical operating temperature range for handling pitch is 204 to 260°C / 400 to 500°F.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are usually required because of temperature. Mechanical shaft seals suited for this service may be used.



PLASTICIZERS

Plasticizers are materials that are added to a plastic to facilitate compounding and to improve flexibility and other properties of the finished product. Among the important plasticizers are nonvolatile organic liquids or low-melting solids. Typical of the plasticizers are phthalate and aryl phosphate esters; polyol alcohols are also common plasticizers.

Viscosity: Varies widely with the particular plasticizer and the pumping temperature.

Remarks: Plasticizers are especially important in the making of rubber, vinyl and cellulosic resins.

Pump Notes: For specifics on the particular plasticizer being handled, check with the user or supplier for information.



PLASTISOL

Plastisol is a liquid dispersion of finely divided resin in a plasticizer, q.v.. Polyvinyl chloride resin dispersed in a plasticizer is a typical plastisol. It is usually 100% solid with no volatiles; when volatile content exceeds 5% of the total weight, it is called an organosol. When the plastisol is heated, the plasticizer solvates the resin particles and the mass gels. With continued application of heat, the mass fuses to become a conventional thermoplastic material.

Remarks: Plastisols are useful for molding, casting films or coating. They are often used without volatile or high processing temperatures. Some plastisols or organosols may be heat or shear-sensitive.

Pump Notes: Check with supplier of material for liquid characteristics before making a pump recommendation.



POLYESTER RESIN - See Resins



POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL

Other Names: PEG, polyoxyethylene, polyglycol or polyether glycol. Polyethylene glycol is the name for polymers of ethylene glycol having a wide range of molecular weights. Properties vary with molecular weight.

Viscosity: varies widely, depending on the particular glycol. Generally in the range of 22 to 220 cPs., with variations beyond this possible.

Remarks: Clear, colorless, odorless, viscous liquids or waxy solids. Soluble or miscible with water and organic solvents. Used in making plasticizers, softeners, lubricants, as a base for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Polyethylene glycol is often identified by a number such as 400 following the name. The number following the name indicates average molecular weight. The numbers 400 and less indicate a liquid; those with higher numbers generally indicate a solid at room temperature.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



POLYMER

A substance composed of giant molecules that have been formed by the union of a number of simple molecules with one another. The number that unite to form a polymer molecule varies from two to hundreds or thousands. The simple molecules that undergo such a change are known as monomers, and their union is called polymerization. The monomer molecules may be all alike, or there may be two or more varieties of monomer involved in the formation of a single polymer. Ethylene molecules can be united with themselves to form polyethylene resin which is a monopolymer. SBR synthetic rubber is a copolymer, since two different kinds of monomer (styrene and butadiene) are required. A polymer formed from three monomers is a terpolymer. The most important polymers in order of volume used are polyethylene, polyvinyl and polystyrene.

Viscosity: From the above discussion it is obvious that there can be a wide range of properties of a polymer. Records show that a viscosity range of 220 to 22,000 cPs. would cover most polymers pumped. Sp. Gr. is a function of the particular polymer.

Remarks: In addition to the many chemical names for polymers, there are many trade names used by manufacturers to identify their specific polymers.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory but stainless steel may also be required. Elastomer recommendation depends on the particular polymer.



POLYOL

Other Names: Polyalcohol. Alcohols having many hydroxyl radicals are called polyols.
Viscosity: Varies widely, depending on the specific polyol. Generally in the range from 550 cPs. to 33,000 cPs.

Remarks: Many companies market polyols under their own trade names.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are usually acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal may be used as well as a sealless design pump.



POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID - See Phosphoric Acid



POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL - Similar to Polyethylene Glycol, q.v.



POLYURETHANE FOAM

To make polyurethane foam, a polyether such as polypropylene glycol is treated with a diisocyanate in the presence of water and a catalyst (amines, tin soaps, organic tin compounds), as well as fillers, dispersing and emulsifying agents, etc. Simultaneously with the polymer-forming reactions the water reacts with the isocyanate group to cause cross linking and curing, and also produces carbon dioxide which causes foaming. In some foams, a volatile material such as Freon is incorporated to serve as a blowing agent. Foam is normally made by one of two basic methods, the prepolymer system or the one-shot system.

The prepolymer system brings two streams together at the foaming head. Component A is a mixture of a polyol, catalyst, surfactant and blowing agent, while component B is a polyol isocyanate mixture. Both components are quite viscous.

The one-shot system brings all components together at the spray head through independent lines from separate supplies. This system requires more equipment and precise metering, but once controls are established the uniformity of the foam is much better than with the prepolymer system.

Viscosity: Varies widely from thin for the blowing agents, catalyst and amines to the order of 5,000 for the polyols or resins.

Remarks: Flexible foams, made with resins having triols as a basic material, have high strength, good heat insulating properties, and resistance to water, oil, solvents and abrasion. The rigid foams made from polyether containing compounds such as sorbitol, or sucrose, add strength and rigidity to metal framework at little increase in weight. Foams are used in insulating tresses and upholstery, interlining for clothing and sleeping bags, for soundproofing walls, as an insulation against heat loss, in life preservers, fish net floats, foam rubber applications, packaging and many other areas of use.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is normally satisfactory. Elastomer selection varies based on the particular grade of material. A sealless design pump is the pump of choice due to crystallization tendencies of the products pumped.



POLYVINYL ACETATE

Other Names: PVAc
Viscosity: Ranges from 1,100 to 11,000 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: 1.2

Remarks: Colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, transparent, thermoplastic solid. Insoluble in water, oils and fats. Soluble in alcohols, esters, benzene and ketones. Used in latex water paints, in hot melt and other types of adhesives, for coating and finishing fabrics, as a component of lacquers, inks and in caulking compounds and chewing gum.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction may be satisfactory but stainless steel may also be required. EPR elastomers are generally acceptable. Attention needs to be given to speed and sealing methods with this liquid.



POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA)

A water soluble synthetic resin made by hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate.

Viscosity: Variable, depending on the degree of hydrolysis; ranges from 400 to 40,000 cPs.
Sp. Gr.: 1.2 to 1.3

Remarks: A base material for water-resistant laminating adhesives. Used in adhesives, in binders for leather, cloth and paper, in grease proof paper, as a paper size, as an emulsifying agent, as an emulsion stabilizer and thickener, for temporary protective coatings.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are generally acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal may be used depending on viscosity.



POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE - See Sodium Hydroxide



PRINTING INK

A mixture of finely divided pigment such as carbon black suspended in a drying oil such as linseed oil. Synthetic resins are frequently used plus cobalt, manganese and lead soaps are often added to achieve rapid drying by oxidation and polymerization. Mineral oils are also used in certain inks. Some types of ink dry by evaporation of a volatile solvent rather than by oxidation of a drying oil. For colored inks, pigments such as chrome yellows or lithol reds are used.

Viscosity: Varies from a few hundred cPs. to 40,000 cPs., depending on the type of ink and temperature

Remarks: Some inks such as carbon paper inks contain wax; these inks and certain other types are often handled at temperatures in the range of 82 to 93°C / 180 to 200°F. Steam jacketed features may be required for handling these inks. Certain inks, depending on the solvent, may be considered flammable.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is generally acceptable. Elastomers depend on the solvent used. A mechanical seal suitable for thick and or abrasive type liquids should be used.



PROPANE - See LP-Gas



PROPYLENE GLYCOL

Other Names: Methylethylene glocol, methyl glocol
Formula: CH3CHOHCH2OH
Sp. Gr.: 1.04
Viscosity: From 10 to 100 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, viscous, stable, hygroscopic liquid. Miscible with water, alcohols and many organic solvents. b.p. 187°C / 369°F, vapor pressure 0.07 mm @ 20°C / 68°F, flash point (open cup) 107°C / 225°F. Used in making polyester resins, anti-freeze solutions; used as a solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, perfumes. Serves as a hygroscopic agent; lubricant in refrigeration machines, plasticizer, cosmetics, solvent in foods, as a wetting agent, an emulsifier and as an animal feed additive.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



PVA - See Polyvinyl Alcohol



PVAc - See Polyvinyl Acetate



REFRIGERANTS - See Anhydrous Ammonia and Freons



RESINS

Resin is an organic, semi-solid or solid material produced by union (through polymerization or condensation) of a large number of molecules of one or two relatively simple compounds. Properties vary widely with the raw materials, their proportions and the conditions of formulation of the resin. Resins are broadly classified as thermoplastic or thermosetting according as they soften or harden with the application of heat.

Listed below are some of the synthetic resins classed by their derivation:

1. Modification of natural polymers, e.g., chlorinated rubber, cellulose acetate, casein and ester gums.

2. Resins formed by polymerization (union of small molecules without formation of water or some other simple molecule as a by-product), e.g., acrylate resins, polystyrene, vinylidene resins, etc.

3. Resins derived by condensation (union of small molecules with the formation of water or some other simple molecule as a by-product), e.g. alkyd resins, q.v., epoxy resins, q.v., phenolic resins, polyurethane resins, urea-formaldehyde resins, q.v., etc.

Viscosity: Varies from a few hundred cPs. to several thousand cPs. depending on particular resin

Remarks: Additives such as solvents, blowing agents, abrasive solids, etc. are often mixed with various resins to provide an almost endless variation to the end product. Resins have a broad range of application for such things as paints, protective coatings "plastic" parts, potting materials, hot melts, foam, adhesives, etc. See specific resins by name for additional uses.

Pump Notes: Construction recommendation depends on the individual resin. Additives can affect pump recommendation. Some resins are shear and/or heat sensitive; reduced speeds, cooling jackets, etc., may be helpful.



ROOFING TAR - See Tar



ROSIN

Other Names: Gum rosin, colophony, pine resin, wood rosin
Viscosity: Varies from a few hundred cPs. to 20,000 cPs. depending on temperature and/or solvent. Rosins without solvents are often handled in the 204 to 260°C / 400 to 500°F. temperature range.
Sp. Gr.: 1.1

Remarks: Rosin occurs as angular, translucent, amber-colored fragments. M.p. in the 93 to 149°C / 200 to 300°F range; insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether and oils. It is obtained from pine trees by distillation process. Rosin is used in making linoleum, in making soldering compounds, core oils, insulating compounds, molding compounds, sealing waxes, medicines, in paper sizing, printing inks and varnishes. Rosin is combustible; gives off flammable vapors when heated.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory although stainless steel may also be requested. Elastomer and shaft sealing recommendation depends on the particular rosin and temperature.



RUBBER CEMENT

Viscosity: Varies widely, depending on particular cement. Can range from 150 to to 22,000 cPs. and higher.
Sp. Gr.: 0.6 to 0.9

Remarks: Rubber cement is normally a solution of rubber and a hydrocarbon solvent. Used as a binder to hold materials in position until sewing or clamping is accomplished, as permanent bonds, as vulcanizing seals, in shoe manufacture, as a sound deadener, as an adhesive for paper and for repairing.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation depends on the solvent used in the cement. Mechanical shaft seals have been used successfully on this product.



SALAD DRESSING - See Mayonnaise



SAUSAGE STUFFING - See Meat Emulsion



SILICATE - See Sodium Silicate



SHORTENING - Similar to Vegetable Oil, q.v.



SHELLAC

Shellac is a resin secreted by an insect from the far east. After processing the resin becomes shellac as we know it.

Other Names: Lac, garnet lac, gum lac or stick lac
Viscosity: 22 cPs. to several thousand, depending on how much it has been reduced

Remarks: Insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol. Used in paints, stains, varnishes, as a general binder and for making sealing wax.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are usually acceptable.



SILICATE OF SODA - See Sodium Silicate



SILICONE FLUIDS

Viscosity: Commercially available in a range of viscosities from 1 cPs. to several thousand cPs.

Remarks: Silicone fluids are characterized by heat stability, water repellency, good dielectric properties and incompatibility with many organic polymers which makes them effective release agents. Some silicones tend to have low surface tension which means they have little lubricating ability.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless design pump may be used.



SOAP

Other Names: Kettle soap, soap stock, soap skimmings, liquid soap; soap as discussed here is from natural oils and fatty oils as differing from black liquor soap that is a by-product of the paper pulp processing.

Ordinary soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various fatty acids of natural oils and fats. It is made by heating the oils with caustic soda, salting out the soluble soap formed and drawing off the dilute glycerol produced. Common soap is largely a mixture of the sodium salts of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. Rosin soaps as used for laundry purposes are made by adding a soap made from rosin or rosin itself to an ordinary soap. Castile soaps are made from olive oil. Transparent soaps are made from decolorized fats with the addition of glycerol or sugar. Liquid soap is usually a potash soap dissolved in water.

Viscosity: Varies from 40cps to 40,000 cPs. SSU and up depending on type of soap and stage in process. Soap is normally handled anywhere between ambient temperatures and 93°C / 200°F.
Sp. Gr.: 0.9 to 1.0

Pump Notes: Cast iron or stainless steel construction is needed depending on the particular soap. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are usually recommended. Mechanical seals may be used but PTFE packing is also frequently used.



SOAP SKIMMINGS - See Black Liquor Soap



SODIUM CHLORIDE BRINES

Other Names: Table salt, sea salt, common salt, rock salt. Brine is made when the salt is put into solution in water.
Formula: NaCl
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 to 1.2
Viscosity: Brines being solutions in water are normally almost as thin as water

Remarks: Sodium chloride brine is used for refrigeration purposes in food preservation.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually acceptable. Avoid use of dissimilar metals in pump construction due to electrolytic action of the salt. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical seal.



SODIUM HYDROXIDE

Other Names: Caustic, caustic soda, lye, sodium hydroxide, aqueous
Formula: NaOH
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 for 10% concentration, 1.4 for 50% concentration
Viscosity: From water-thin to 40 cPs. depending on concentration and temperature

Remarks: Sodium hydroxide is a white, crystalline hygroscopic solid. It is soluble in water, alcohol and glycerol. It is used in the manufacture of other chemicals, rayon and film, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, making of aluminum, refining vegetable oil, in detergents, soaps, textile processing, in reclaiming rubber and as an alkali in foods. Causes severe burns to skin and eyes.

Pump Notes: Concentrations up to 50% can usually be handled with cast iron construction. Elastomer recommendation depends on concentration and ranges from buna n to PTFE or Kalrez?.



SODIUM METASILICATE - Similar to Sodium Silicate.



SODIUM SILICATE

Other Names: Soluble glass, silicate of soda, liquid glass, water glass; similar to sodium metasilicate
Formula: Na2O.3.75 SiO2 to 2Na2O.SiO2 with various proportions of water
Viscosity: Varies widely over a range. Normal range is from 100 cPs. to 5,500 cPs. Normally handled at room temperature.
Sp. Gr.: 1.4 to 1.5

Remarks: White powder or clear liquid with widely varying viscosity. Freezing point is slightly lower than that of water. Made by melting sand and soda ash. Used as a catalyst. Also used in making soaps and detergents, adhesives, pigments, water treatment, bleaching and sizing of textiles and paper pulp, as a binder for foundry cores and molds and in waterproofing mortars and cements. Sodium silicate is irritating to the eyes and skin.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended. A mechanical shaft seal may be used if suitable for the viscosity and potential abrasion but packing is also frequently used.



SOLDER - See construction recommendations under Lead



SOLVENTS

A solvent normally means the liquid used to dissolve a solid or put it into solution. The term is used widely in the paint industry, metal cleaning, degreasing, plastics, etc. Alcohol, naphtha, toluene, ketones are all typical solvents. Many solvents are listed by name in this Liquid List.

Viscosity: Almost all solvents are water-thin



SOYBEAN OIL

Other Names: Soya bean oil, Chinese bean oil, soy oil
Viscosity: From 10 cPs. to several hundred cPs. depending on stage of process and temperature

Remarks: Pale, yellow oil; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and carbon disulfide; m.p. approximately 25°C / 77°F. The oil is obtained from soybeans that are crushed, heated with steam and pressed, or by solvent extraction. Soybean oil is used in making soaps, as a food, in making inks, as a substitute for linseed oil in paints and varnishes, as a cattle feed, a butter substitute, in salad dressings, in resins, linoleum and in the manufacture of glue.

Soybean foots are sometimes encountered in soybean oil processing. See Foots.

Soybean gums are also sometimes handled as a by-product of soybean oil processing. These gums can have viscosities upwards of 20,000 cPs.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



STARCH

Other Names: Hot starch, cooked starch, raw starch, starch slurry. For recommendations on clay and starch mixtures in the paper industry see Paper Coatings.
Formula: (C6H10O5)X
Sp. Gr.: 1.5
Viscosity: Varies from a few cPs. to at least 20,000 cPs., depending on type of starch, amount of liquid in the slurry, temperature, etc.

Remarks: Starch is a white, tasteless powder; insoluble in cold water, forms a jelly with hot water. It is derived from corn, arrowroot or potatoes. It is used for making adhesives, for the sizing and finishing of textiles, in foods, in sizing paper, in making explosives, in medicines, face powders, cosmetics, bookbinding, making glucose, malt sugar, caramel and in cattle feeds.

Pump Notes: Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel. Buna n elastomers are normally acceptable. Starches are generally shear sensitive liquids; the pump design must be capable of handling that type of liquid.



STEARIC ACID - Melts at 71°C / 160°F, viscosity 30 cPs. at 82°C / 180°F. See Fatty Acid for additional information.



STICK - See Liquid Stick



STODDARD SOLVENT - See Solvents



STYRENE

Other Names: Styrene monomer, vinyl benzene, phenylethylene
Formula: C6H5CH: CH2
Sp. Gr.: 0.90
Viscosity: Styrene monomer - thin. If polymerization has taken place, or if the styrene has been mixed with other liquids, viscosity may range up to 100,000 cPs.

Remarks: Styrene is a colorless, oily-like liquid, aromatic odor; freezing point -31°C / -24°F, -b.p. 145°C / 293°F, flash point (open cup) 38°C / 100°F. Insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and ether; readily polymerizes when heated or exposed to light, becoming increasingly viscous until a clear solid is produced. Inhibitors are mixed with the styrene during shipment to prevent polymerization. Used for making polystyrene plastics, making SBR and ABS resins, and in making protective coatings.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is normally satisfactory. Elastomers vary from Viton? to PTFE or Kalrez?. A mechanical shaft seal is frequently used.



SUCROSE - TECHNICAL NAME FOR SUGAR - See Sugar Syrup



SUGAR SYRUP

Other Names: Liquid sugar, sugar, beet sugar, cane sugar, sucrose
Formula: C12H22O11
Sp. Gr.: 1.1 to 1.5
Viscosity: Varies widely depending on specific gravity and temperature, e.g., 21°C / 70°F., 68 Brix syrup has a viscosity of approximately 240 cPs. while 21°C / 70°F. 76 Brix sugar has a viscosity of 1,300.

Remarks: The term sugar syrup or syrup is a very broad one and is applied very generally to a number of sweet tasting carbohydrates. Sugar syrups are used in food, for sweetening, in candy, preserves and jams, in making soap, pharmaceuticals, carmel, as a chemical intermediate for detergents, as an emulsifying agent in such things as plasticizers, resins, explosives, glues and insecticides.

Pump Notes: Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on user needs. Buna n elastomers are recommended. Mechanical shaft seals are frequently used.



SULFONIC ACID

Sulfonic acid is a very general term which often is applied to a liquid which has been sulfonated, i.e., a liquid which has been joined together with the SO2OH group. This process is called sulfonation. An example of this is the conversion of benzene (C6H6) into benzene sulfonic acid (C6H5HSO3). Common sulfonating agents are concentrated sulfuric acid, fuming sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide and other sulfur-containing liquids. Generally sulfonic acid will be rather active corrosion-wise.

Pump Notes: Construction varies from cast iron to stainless steel depending on the liquid. PTFE or Kalrez? are elastomers are normally used.



SULFUR

Other Names: Brimstone, flours of sulfur, molten sulfur
Formula: S
Sp. Gr.: 1.8
Viscosity: In the suggested handling range of 121°C / 250°F to 154°C / 310°F, viscosity varies from 9 cPs. to 6 cPs. Above 154°C / 310°F, the viscosity increases rapidly as the temperature increases until at 188°C / 370°F it is almost solid.

Remarks: Sulfur is mined as the pure element in areas of Texas, Louisiana and Sicily. It is also found combined in many ores, petroleum and natural gas. It is used in making sulfuric acid, in the pulp and paper industry, in making carbon disulfide and other chemicals and dyes, for vulcanizing rubber and in medicines. Some sulfur contains abrasive impurities; sulfur should be considered a non-lubricating liquid.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are acceptable. Special attention must be paid to shaft sealing because of the liquid properties.



SULFURIC ACID, CONCENTRATED

Other Names: Hydrogen sulfate, oil of vitriol, battery acid, 660 Baume sulfuric acid (93.2%), 98% sulfuric acid
Formula: H2SO4
Sp. Gr.: 1.84
Viscosity: Less than 160 cPs.

Remarks: Sulfuric acid is one of the most important of the heavy chemicals. It is strongly corrosive, dense, oily, colorless to dark brown depending on purity. It is miscible with water in all proportions, but great caution is necessary in mixing due to evolution of much heat that may cause explosive spattering. It is very reactive, dissolves most metals; concentrated acid oxidizes, dehydrates, or sulfonates most organic compounds, often causing charring. Used in making fertilizers, as a source of many chemicals, in petroleum refining, in making paints and pigments, in production of iron and steel, in the manufacture of rayon and cellulose film, in making industrial explosives. Some of the high concentrations are prone to "salt out," which can cause the pump to bind up in the bushing areas. Applicants for handling sludge or spent sulfuric acid should be reviewed with user.

Pump Notes: Because of the corrosive characteristics of this liquid consult the pump manufacturer for specific recommendations.



SUPERHOSPHORIC ACID - See Phosphoric Acid



SYRUP - See Sugar Syrup



TALL OIL

Other Names: Tallol, liquid rosin

Viscosity: Varies widely, depending on source of tall oil and stage in process. Can vary from 220 to 560 cPs. Generally handled in the temperature range from ambient to93°C / 200°F.

Remarks: Tall oil is the oily mixture of rosin acids, fatty acids and other materials obtained by acid treatment of the alkaline liquors from the digesting of pine wood. The spent black liquor from the pulping process is concentrated until the sodium salts of the various acids separate out and are skimmed off. These soaps are acidified by sulfuric acid to obtain the crude tall oil. Used in drying oils, alkyd resins, linoleum, soaps, cutting oils, emulsifiers, flotation agents, lubricants and greases, and in making rubber. Suggest checking with user or supplier of material to make sure materials of construction recommended for the pump are in keeping with materials in the rest of the system.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation varies with specific product.



TALLOW - See Fats



TAR

Tar is a dark-colored bituminous substance, liquid or semi-liquid at ambient temperatures, obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, wood, peat, or other carbonaceous or vegetable materials. On further distillation, it forms a pitch. The composition and origin of tar varies widely.

Other Names: Roofing tar; often called, although perhaps incorrectly, asphalt, or pitch
Viscosity: Solid or semi-solid at room temperatures; 100 cPs. to 500 cPs. at normal pumping temperature range of 204°C / 400°F to 315°C / 600°F

Remarks: Tar is often a residue remaining after the processing of basic materials; as a result, it frequently contains a variety of materials and liquids which makes one single pump construction recommendation impractical. Tar is used oftentimes for such things as coating roofs, coating cast iron pipe or gas transmission lines, etc.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are normally recommended due to temperature. A mechanical shaft seal can be used but packing or submerging the pump in the liquid are more common sealing solutions.



TDI - See Toluene Diisocyanate



TETRACHLOROETHYLENE - See Perchloroethylene



TETRAHYDROFURAN

Other Names: THF
Formula: C4H8O
Sp. Gr.: 0.89
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Water-white liquid. Freezing point -65°C / -85°F, b.p. 66°C / 87°F, flash point (open cup) -15°C / 5°F, soluble in water and organic solvents. Used as a solvent for natural and synthetic resins. Used in coating solutions, protective coatings, adhesives and printing inks.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



THERMINOL - See Heat Transfer Liquids



TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Handled as a slurry. It is extremely abrasive.

Formula: TiO2
Sp. Gr.: 3.8
Viscosity: Varies, depending on the type of slurry being handled from 22 to 2,200 cPs.

Remarks: Titanium dioxide is used as a paint pigment, in paper coating, making floor coverings; also in printing inks.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Elastomer recommendation depends on the solvent used. The pump design needs to be capable of handling abrasives.



TOLUENE

Other Names: Toluol, methylbenzene, phenylmethane
Formula: CH3C6H5
Sp. Gr.: 0.87
Vapor Pressure: Approximately 30mm Hg. absolute at 70°F
Viscosity: Thin. 1 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, flammable liquid. B.p. 111°C / 232°F, flash point 4°C / 40°F. Soluble in alcohol, benzene and ether; insoluble in water. Used in blending aviation gasoline, as a raw material for benzene phenol, as a solvent for paints, coatings, gums, resins and rubber cement. Used for making chemicals, in medicines, dyes, perfumes and as a source of toluene diisocyanates used in polyurethane resins. Flammable; vapor is harmful.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Viton? elastomers are usually acceptable. A mechanical shaft seal or sealless pump design may be used.



TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

Other Names: TDI, toluene-2,4-isocyanate; commercial grades are often mixtures of the 2,4- isomer and the 2,6- isomer
Formula: CH3C6H3 (NCO)2
Sp. Gr.: 1.2
Viscosity: Variable depending on mixture of isomers but normally in the range of 7 to 165 cPs.

Remarks: Water-white to pale yellow liquid with a sharp, pungent odor; b.p. 250°C / 418°F, flash point 132°C / 270°F, m.p. (pure) 20°C / 68°F, vapor pressure 0.01 mm @ 20°C / 68°F; soluble in ether, acetone and other organic solvents. Used in making polyurethane foams q.v., elastomers and resins. Irritating to eyes and nose; causes burns.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is usually acceptable. Viton?, PTFE or Kalrez? elastomers are recommended. TDI is normally handled with a sealless design pump.



TOLUOL - See Toluene



TRANSFORMER OIL

Any refined petroleum oil suitable for use in surrounding the coils of transformers to provide electrical insulating and to conduct heat.

Viscosity: 10 to 22 cPs.

Remarks: Transformer oil is highly refined to keep oxidation, moisture, acid, soap, salts and suspended matter to a minimum. Some applications may involve a high vacuum if equipment is being used to remove vapor from the transformer oil.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



TRICHLOROETHANE

Other Names: 1.1, 1-trichloroethane; methyl chloroform
Formula: CH3CCI3
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Colorless liquid. b.p. 75°C / 167°F; insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and ether. Used in medicine; as a pesticide; as a general solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, and cutting oil compounds; as a coolant and lubricant.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. PTFE, Kalrez? or Viton? elastomers provide acceptable results.



TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL

Other Names: TEG
Formula: HO(C2H4O)3H
Sp. Gr.: 1.12
Viscosity: 25 to 65 cPs.

Remarks: Colorless, hygroscopic, odorless liquid. Soluble in water. Used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, for various gums and resins, in making lacquers and as a textile conditioner.

Pump Notes: Cast iron construction is satisfactory. Buna n elastomers are recommended as is a mechanical shaft seal.



TRICHLOROETHYLENE

Formula: CHCl: CC12
Sp. Gr.: 1.46
Viscosity: Thin

Remarks: Stable, low-boiling, colorless, heavy, mobile, toxic liquid. Nonflammable, nonexplosive, noncombustible. Will not attack common metals in presence of moisture. b.p. 87°C / 189°F, m.p. -73°C / -99°F, flash point (open cup) none up to boiling point. Miscible with common or